Book Review: The Devil’s Own Luck

I recently read The Devil’s Own Luck:  Pegasus Bridge to the Baltic 1944-45, by Denis Edwards.  This is a firsthand account of combat in France and Germany from a private soldier of 6th Airborne Division.

Denis Edwards was born in 1924 and enlisted in the British Army in 1941.  As he was only 16, he lied about his age, which was not unusual during the War.  Shortly after enlistment, he volunteered for 2nd Battalion, the Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire Light Infantry, knowing that it was part of the new Airborne Forces.  2nd Bn. Oxf & Bucks was a glider-borne battalion, utilizing the large Horsa glider, which could carry 28 soldiers plus two pilots.

horsa interior

Men of 2nd Battalion, the Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire Light Infantry undergo glider training inside a Horsa glider.  The Horsa could carry 28 troops in addition to its two pilots.  Photo from the Imperial War Museum collection.

Edwards, known as “Eddie” to his friends, served in D Company, 2nd Oxf. & Bucks., and took part in the famous assault and capture of Pegasus Bridge the night before D-Day.  Edwards was in 25 Platoon, which flew in Number 1 Glider with Major John Howard, D Company’s determined and energetic commanding officer.  25 Platoon was commanded by Lt. “Den” Brotheridge, who was shot leading the charge across the bridge, and is believed to have been the first Allied soldier killed during the Normandy invasion.

While the capture of the bridges over the Caen Canal and Orne River went well, the real challenge was holding those bridges against enemy counter-attack, particularly before reinforcements were able to arrive.  7th Parachute Battalion suffered a scattered drop, and it took time for the paratroopers to make it to their objective, and it was afternoon on D-Day by the time the seaborne Commandos arrived.  D Company held the vital bridges until reinforced, but several of the officers and NCO’s became casualties.

The men of 6th Airborne had been told that, after taking their objectives, they would be withdrawn back to England to prepare for additional airborne operations.  They were told that they would be in Normandy for at most ten days.  In actuality, however, the Division remained on the front line and defended the Allied east flank for two and a half months.  Finally, as the Germans began to retreat, 6th Airborne took part in the advance to the Seine; it was the beginning of September by the time they returned to England.

After a period of rest and absorbing replacement troops, 6th Airborne played a key role during the campaign in the Ardennes, termed the “Battle of the Bulge” by the Americans.  The Division was in England preparing for Christmas, when their leave was canceled and they were hurriedly transported by ship and truck to the front line.  The Division helped to contain the attempted German break-out; while 2nd Oxf. & Bucks. did not take significant casualties, some of the other battalions in the Division suffered numerous losses.

In March, 1945, the Division provided an airborne spearhead for the Allied crossing of the Rhine (Operation Varsity).  D Company landed at the German village of Hamminkeln, and again took heavy casualties.  Edwards was knocked unconscious by an artillery shell burst, but he recovered in a few days.  6th Airborne then took part in the drive northeast, and eventually linked up with Russian troops near the Elbe River.


Operation Varsity, March 25, 1945.  This photograph shows Horsa gliders on the landing zone at Hamminkeln.  Photo from the IWM.

By the time the war ended, Edwards had survived without serious injury.  D Company suffered tremendous casualties from D-Day to V-E Day; Edwards considered himself extraordinarily lucky to have come through unscathed, hence the book’s title.

I have read other books on D Company, 2nd Oxf. & Bucks., in which the focus was on D-Day and Pegasus Bridge.  While Edwards’ description of the bridge capture is one of the more exciting parts of the book, D-Day only makes up a small part of the narrative.

Edwards found a small notebook shortly after D-Day, and used it as his diary.  This was a prohibited activity; if it fell into enemy hands, a soldier’s diary could become an important source of intelligence.  Edwards rarely kept his notebook on his person; most of the time, it was hidden away in his slit trench.  This diary formed the basis for most of the book, and allowed Edwards’ depiction of Normandy to be vivid and remarkably detailed.  He did not keep a diary during the Ardennes or the Rhine crossing; while interesting, those portions of the book do not have the same depth.

Edwards’ thorough descriptions of his daily activities in Normandy bring his narrative to life, from eating rations to digging trenches to the strain of being under continuous bombardment.  The tinned composite rations included an instant sweetened tea; Edwards called it “monkey mixture” and was not impressed with it, saying it provided a hot drink but there was little resemblance to normal tea.  It was only towards the end of the campaign in Normandy that he received fresh bread and real tea; otherwise it was hard biscuits and the instant mixture.  When the men were issued bully beef, typically two or three men had to share one tin.  The men were frequently hungry, and the lack of fresh food over an extended period also resulted in digestive upset, or “compo tummy”.

D Company suffered terrible losses while holding their positions, as they were under nearly constant artillery and mortar fire.   Additionally, the summer of 1944 was unusually cold and wet; the men spent weeks in their slit trenches with few opportunities to dry out, let alone bathe or launder their filthy uniforms.  Without dry socks to change into, the frequent rain also damaged their feet.  The weather and the insufficient food combined to cause the men of D Company to lose much of their physical fitness.

During the Normandy campaign, Edwards’ standard rifle was replaced with the Rifle No. 4 (T), a sniper variant with telescopic sight.  He often went out alone or in a small group to perform reconnaissance or harass the enemy.  He also captured an enemy “Schmeisser” submachine gun (MP 38 or 40) and a Walther pistol.

Howard & Snipers

Major John Howard (center) with the snipers of D Company, 2nd Battalion, Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire Light Infantry.  Dennis Edwards is the man farthest to the right.

Whenever D Company moved to a new position, they were ordered to dig slit trenches.  Edwards wrote that the men found this frustrating, as they often took over from another unit that had already dug trenches, but the officers always wanted new ones prepared.  Two men shared a trench, which needed to be six feet long, two feet wide, and five or more feet deep.  According to Edwards, this was extremely difficult with just the small entrenching tool that was carried with the 1937-Pattern webbing equipment.  Eventually, the men of D Company captured full-sized German picks and shovels, which made the job easier.  Each trench needed a roof to give protection from shrapnel; stolen doors were a popular choice, as were resupply drop containers, which could be filled with earth and placed over a trench.

As both an amateur writer/historian and a reenactor, I find it extremely valuable to read personal accounts like this one.  Reading a high-level description of a battle or campaign is certainly worthwhile, but it is the soldier’s view from the slit trench or on the march that gives me a better understanding of what a typical soldier’s life was like.  The Devil’s Own Luck is fast-paced, well-written, and holds the reader’s attention.  Additionally, while other books have focused on 2nd Oxf. & Bucks.’ vital and spectacular role on D-Day, Edwards vividly described the experience of holding the Allies’ east flank for several weeks against continuous enemy pressure, as well as the Battalion’s subsequent operations.  I highly recommend this personal account of the War in Northern Europe.

The Devils’ Own Luck:  Pegasus Bridge to the Baltic 1944-45 is published by Pen & Sword, and is also available through Amazon.  The book was first published in 1999; sadly, Denis Edwards died just a few years later in 2008.

Devils Own Luck Cover

For more information on D Company, 2nd Oxf. & Bucks’ Commanding Officer, Major John Howard, please see my review of his autobiography, The Pegasus Diaries.


Edwards, Denis
The Devils’ Own Luck:  Pegasus Bridge to the Baltic 1944-45
Pen & Sword Books Ltd., 1999

Book Review: The Devil’s Birthday

It is September as I write this, and I have been reflecting on Operation Market Garden, as I always do this time of year.  I also just finished reading The Devil’s Birthday:  The Bridges to Arnhem, 1944, by Geoffrey Powell.

Powell was a career soldier; he served in the British Army for 25 years, retiring at the rank of Colonel.  He spent most of his career with The Green Howards, but he is better known for his wartime service with 156th Battalion, the Parachute Regiment.  After retiring from the Army, Powell turned to writing about history.

Geoffrey Powell

Geoffrey Powell, in the uniform of The Green Howards.

During Market Garden, Powell commanded C Company, 156th Parachute Battalion.  His most famous book is Men at Arnhem, a powerful personal account of the battle; I have previously reviewed this book, which can be found hereThe Devil’s Birthday was written later, and was a history of Operation Market Garden in its entirety, not just limited to Arnhem.

The book covers the entire operation; it would have been easy for Powell to have concentrated on his own division, 1st Airborne, but he gave equal time to the two American divisions as well as the ground forces in British 2nd Army.  He was very complementary of the American 82nd and 101st Airborne Divisions, particularly the spectacular river crossing at Nijmegen.  The book’s title was taken from a German veteran, who described the desperate fighting in the Oosterbeek perimeter as “the devil’s birthday”; many others called it “the cauldron”.

In his introduction, Powell wrote that it was impossible for him to be completely objective because he had participated in the events described.  Yet, I found the book to be well-balanced, and I appreciated his perspective.  I have read several books on Market Garden and have been frustrated with some of the recent ones, when academic historians and armchair tacticians have criticized decisions made both during the planning and once on the ground.  These books have not taken into sufficient account the difficulties of planning a complex operation under rapidly-changing conditions, or taking the best possible course of action when under fire.  Powell agrees that there were numerous mistakes made during the planning; but to an extent, mistakes were inevitable when organizing such a large operation in a very short amount of time.

Many historians have been critical of several aspects of the handling of the operation, from the British lack of cooperation with the Dutch underground, to the allocation of aircraft to General Browning’s headquarters, to the selection of the landing and dropping zones.  Powell examined the same issues, but included the human element.  The Dutch Underground had been penetrated early on by German intelligence, and for two years most British agents and supplies were rounded up soon after landing; upon this discovery, it is no wonder the British were unwilling to trust the organization.  While Powell agrees that the aircraft used to transport Browning’s headquarters to Nijmegen would have been better utilized taking more troops to Arnhem, he points out that Browning was the “Father of the British Airborne”; Market Garden was his first opportunity to go into the field and lead the forces he had been so crucial in creating and training, and it was just human nature to have done so.  1st Airborne’s dropping and landing zones were about eight miles from the main objective at Arnhem bridge, a situation often singled out by historians; Powell pointed out that the US 82nd had a very similar situation at Nijmegen.

US 101 & XXX Corps nr Eind

Soldiers from the US 101st Airborne Division watch as a convoy from British XXX Corps makes its way north from Eindhoven.  The smoke is from a British vehicle destroyed by the enemy.  Photo from the Imperial War Museum.

Based on his personal experience, Powell made several interesting observations about airborne units, some of which I had not read before.  According to Powell, airborne commanders often created complex, detailed air plans to get the troops and supplies where they needed to be.  However, the ground plan was treated almost as an afterthought, with an assumption that once the men reached their dropping and landing zones, taking and holding their objectives was assured.

Another criticism seen in other books is an accusation of lack of control by brigadiers and battalion commanders over their troops, particularly in the early stages of the operation.  According to Powell, however, it often took about a day into an operation before airborne troops really became effective.  While they were trained to a very high degree, it took time to get used to actual combat and dealing with enemy fire.  Airborne troops were only used under certain conditions, and were supposed to be withdrawn after capturing their objectives.  In contrast, traditional units generally had more combat experience; they also had time to advance to enemy contact rather than quite literally dropping on top of it.

The airborne divisions, both British and American, lacked much of the support weaponry enjoyed by traditional infantry.  Airborne troops were taught that attacking with “dash and daring” could overcome a lack of supporting fire, and in many cases this was proved true.  However, at Arnhem, units were forced to attack strongly-defended positions without adequate support, and suffered heavily as a result; this was particularly true with 4th Parachute Brigade.  1st Airborne’s experiences reinforced the German belief that British troops, particularly the Airborne, were extremely tenacious in defense, but not as effective offensively.  However, Powell again provides balance by pointing out that both the 82nd and 101st had similar experiences.

Nijmegen Bridge

British vehicles from Guards Armoured Division crossing Nijmegen Bridge.  Photo from the Imperial War Museum.

Many historians have described the Polish experience in Market Garden as disastrous and futile, particularly as Arnhem Bridge had already been recaptured by the Germans by the time the Poles made their drop.  Powell, however, says the fact that the Polish landing took place south of the Rhine frightened the Germans, who re-allocated forces to prevent the Poles from retaking the bridge. This had the effect of drawing forces away from 1st Airborne north of the river, therefore helping them hold their defensive positions longer.

Powell did not finish the book with the end of the operation; there is also chapter on the battle’s aftermath.  He described the escape and evasion efforts of survivors from 1st Airborne in the weeks and months following the official withdrawal.  He also described the “Hunger Winter”, in which the Dutch populace suffered terribly for their support of the Allies.

I was very surprised by the concluding chapter.  Powell stated that small-scale airborne operations were largely successful, such as the German assault at Eben-Emael and the British raid on the Bruneval radar station.  But he questioned the need for full-sized airborne divisions and large-scale airborne operations.  He wondered whether the highly-trained men might have been better used as conventional infantry.  He also stated that the vast numbers of aircraft required to transport the divisions might have been better used to supply conventional forces.  One must remember that Powell had been a career soldier, who only spent a short part of his 25-year career in the Parachute Regiment.  Yet, it was that short period for which he is famous.

Arnhem Bridge Aerial Photo

Aerial photograph of the road bridge at Arnhem, the final objective of Market Garden.  On the second day of the operation, a German reconnaissance unit attempted to cross the bridge, not realizing British paratroopers held the north end; several destroyed vehicles can be seen.  Photo from the Imperial War Museum.

Overall, I thought this was one of the best books I have read about Arnhem and Market Garden.  While this is not the most detailed of books on the subject, the narrative is fast-paced and easy to read, and gives an excellent overview of the operation.  Additionally, Powell provides insights on the Airborne that I had never read before.  Despite his warning to the contrary, I found Powell to be quite unbiased in his analysis of the decisions made and the reasoning behind those decisions.  I will quite happily read this book again.

The Devil’s Birthday is currently out-of-print, although a downloadable e-book version is available from both Pen & Sword and Amazon.  Additionally, used copies are frequently found online; my copy, which is a first edition of the American printing, was obtained through eBay.

Book Review: The Day the Devils Dropped In

It is early June as I write this, and the news has been full of the commemorations for the 75th Anniversary of D-Day.  I always think about the Normandy campaign this time of year, perhaps even more so this year; I was inspired to read a book on the subject that I had not read before.  I chose The Day the Devils Dropped In:  The 9th Parachute Battalion in Normandy, D-Day to D+6, by Neil Barber.  This has been sitting on my bookshelf for a number of years; I wish now that I had read it earlier.

As the title implies, the book tells the story of 9th Battalion, the Parachute Regiment, and its vital contributions to the success of the Normandy landings.  I was familiar with some of the Battalion’s exploits, but certainly not all of them.

Merville Casemates - Cropped

The Merville Battery in Normandy.  This view shows Casemates No. 3 and No. 4, as seen from the top of Casemate No. 2.  Author’s photograph.

British 6th Airborne Division was assigned a critical role as part of the invasion of Normandy; the Division was to take and hold the Allies’ eastern perimeter and prevent the enemy from reaching the beaches and disrupting the landings.  Within the overall plan, there were also specific objectives that had to be taken.

9th Parachute Battalion was part of 3rd Parachute Brigade, and given a very difficult task:  silencing the guns of the German battery at Merville before dawn of D-Day.  The battery had been built to protect the estuary of the Orne River, and was sited in such a way that it could fire at shipping in the English Channel or along the beach.  It was only one of many similar batteries that the Germans had built as part of Hitler’s Atlantic Wall; however, as the Allied plans developed, Merville was determined a significant threat to Sword Beach.

The guns were emplaced in casemates made of six-foot-thick reinforced concrete, covered by another six feet of earth.  Bombing raids had little effect, so the battery had to be destroyed from the ground.  However, it was protected by minefields, thick hedges of barbed wire, an anti-tank ditch, and several machine gun emplacements.

9th Battalion’s Commanding Officer, Lt.-Col. Terence Otway, was given his assignment about a month before the invasion.  He studied aerial reconnaissance photographs as well as intelligence reports from the French resistance.  He developed his assault plan, and had a mock-up of the battery built where his men could rehearse.

Terence Otway

Lt.-Col. Terence Otway

On June 4, 1944, Brigadier James Hill, the commander of 3rd Parachute Brigade, visited his three battalions as they prepared for D-Day.  He told the officers of 9th Battalion, “Gentlemen, in spite of your excellent orders and training, do not be daunted if chaos reigns.  It undoubtedly will.”  His words could not have been any more prophetic.

The Battalion made its drop into France shortly after midnight on June 5/6.  The drop was nothing short of disastrous, with paratroopers scattered all over the Norman countryside.  Out of the entire Battalion, only about 150 men made it to the designated rendezvous point, and most of the specialized equipment never arrived at all.  Because of the vital nature of the objective, Lt.-Col. Otway decided to attack despite the small numbers; he modified his original plan and re-assigned tasks based on the men and resources available.  The paratroopers cleared paths through the mines, then at Otway’s command, blew gaps in the wire with the available explosives and charged the position.  After several minutes of vicious close-quarters fighting, the handful of paratroopers defeated the enemy garrison.  Since the specially-designed demolition charges had gone missing, methods had to be improvised for disabling the guns.  Only about 75 men withdrew from the battery.

The Battalion, or rather what was left of it, made its way to its next objective as part of the Division’s defensive perimeter east of the invasion beaches.  Although soon reinforced by the Commandos and other seaborne units, for several days 6th Airborne bore the brunt of the enemy’s counter-attacks.  9th Battalion took and held the Chateau St. Come, near Breville.  Otway did not have enough men to adequately hold the Chateau and its numerous outbuildings, so instead they dug slit trenches in the nearby orchard.  There they endured almost continuous fire from enemy mortars and snipers, and held off numerous concerted infantry attacks.  Fortunately, some of the men who had been mis-dropped on D-Day had been able to make their way back to the Battalion and bolster their defenses.  Finally, on June 13, 9th Battalion handed over their position and withdrew.

Merville Aerial Photo

Aerial reconnaissance photograph of the Merville Battery, taken about a month prior to D-Day.  The anti-tank ditch can clearly be seen, as can bomb craters from Allied raids.  Photograph from the collection of the Imperial War Museum.

The story of 9th Parachute Battalion is fascinating, and the book does an excellent job of telling it.  Mr. Barber interviewed a number of survivors from the Battalion, and as much as possible, he let the veterans tell their story.  Barber took their recollections and expertly wove them into a single narrative, which could not have been an easy task, especially since he included several of the men who had been mis-dropped and made their way back to the unit.  The book was originally published in 2002; many of those interviewed have since passed.

Merville Plaque

Memorial to 9th Battalion, the Parachute Regiment, at the Merville Battery.  Author’s photograph.

I had read other accounts of the attack on the battery; in fact, Merville was one of the places I made sure to visit when I toured Normandy several years ago.  I was surprised, however, to learn that Lt. Col. Otway only had a month to plan his assault; after all, Maj. John Howard had been given several months to plan the capture of Pegasus Bridge.  Additionally, I had not been familiar with the terrible fighting the Battalion endured in the days that followed D-Day.

This is not a long book, and it is quite fast-paced.  My only complaint is that the conversion of 9th Parachute Battalion from a standard infantry unit, and its training leading up to D-Day, was compressed into two short chapters; I would have appreciated more of this background.  I thoroughly enjoyed The Day the Devils Dropped In, and I regret not having read it before.  That said, I found it particularly meaningful to read this book during the 75th anniversary of the events it describes.

The Day the Devils Dropped In:  The 9th Parachute Battalion in Normandy, D-Day to D+6 is published by Pen & Sword Books, and is also available through Amazon and other sources.

Pen & Sword Books: The Day the Devils Dropped In

For more information, please visit Neil Barber’s website and Facebook page.

The Site of 6th Airborne Division Historian Neil Barber

Facebook: The Day the Devils Dropped In

Book Cover UK

Book Review: The Pegasus Diaries

I recently read The Pegasus Diaries:  The Private Papers of Major John Howard, DSO.

I have read Stephen Ambrose’s well-known book, Pegasus Bridge, a number of times, and thoroughly enjoyed reading about the capture of the bridges over the Orne River and Caen Canal just after midnight on D-Day.  It was that book that inspired me to travel to Normandy and see the Benouville bridge in person.

Pegasus Diaries was published more recently, and I purchased it hoping it would give me additional insight into the planning and training that went into the operation.  However, that was not the focus of the book; instead, I learned about the life and personality of one of the greatest heroes of the Normandy campaign.

John Howard kept a personal diary from January, 1942, through early 1946.  His daughter, Penny, found the diary as a child, but was prohibited from reading it.  She did not see the diary again until after her father’s death in 1999.

Penny (now Penny Bates) decided to transcribe the diary into her computer.  This was not an easy task, as her father’s handwriting was very difficult to read; she was one of the few who could decipher it.  She then supplemented the diary with her father’s planning notes for D-Day and other documents, and decided to turn these sources into a personal narrative from her father’s perspective.  Because her father had worked closely with Stephen Ambrose for Pegasus Bridge, Penny wanted her book to be less about D-Day, and more about her father’s personality and family life.

Major John Howard

Major John Howard, D.S.O.

Reginald John Howard grew up in a large, working-class family in Camden Town, London.  His family called him “Reg”, but he preferred to go by his middle name.  As a child, John was intelligent and hard-working; he was a good student, and helped care for his eight siblings.  He became active in the local Boy Scout troop, through which he became an avid athlete, and also fell in love with the English countryside.

Howard joined the Army at the age of 19, and served seven years in the King’s Shropshire Light Infantry.  While a soldier, he met Joy Bromley, and they fell in love.  After proposing to Joy, Howard left the army in 1938 at the rank of Corporal.  He was then accepted into the Oxford City Police Force.

War broke out in September, 1939.  John and Joy were married in October, and shortly after, John was recalled to the Army and rejoined his regiment as a Corporal.  Howard was an exceptional soldier, and was quickly promoted to Sergeant, then Company Sergeant Major; in April, 1940, he was made Regimental Sergeant Major.

The Army expanded rapidly after war was declared.  There was a desperate shortage of officers, and Howard was recommended for the Officer Cadet Training Unit.  Upon graduation, Howard was commissioned as a 2nd Lieutenant in the Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire Light Infantry, and assigned to be an infantry training officer.

Being athletic, hard-working, and energetic, Howard grew bored and frustrated as a trainer and wanted a more exciting position.  Upon the creation of the Airborne Forces, the Army decided to convert 2nd Battalion of the Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire L.I. to become a glider-borne unit.  Volunteers were needed; Howard thought the Airborne role would suit him, so he applied and was accepted.  Shortly after joining the battalion, Howard was given command of D Company, in February, 1942.  2nd Oxf. & Bucks. was part of 1st Airborne Division, then was transferred to 6th Airborne when that Division was created in 1943.

When Howard joined the battalion, most of the other officers had come from aristocratic families and had graduated from the Sandhurst military academy.  They looked down on Howard’s working-class roots and the fact that he had come up from the ranks.  While a lesser man may have been consumed by resentment, Howard turned his bitterness into determination and focus on his work.  He wanted to prove that he could be just as good an officer as the others, if not better.

Howard wanted D Company to be the best company in the Regiment.  At first, his men grumbled about how demanding he was; he had very high standards, particularly for physical fitness and stamina.  He also gave his men intensive training in weapons handling, unarmed combat, and tactics.  He made sure his men were proficient in the use of first aid and signals, driving various vehicles, and cooking rations in the field.  The Airborne was made up of volunteers who were more highly motivated and more intelligent than the average soldier.  While the men of D Company complained about how hard they had to work, they soon developed a tremendous respect for their energetic officer and took enormous pride in their unit.  While Howard’s experiences in the Officer’s Mess were difficult, he soon formed strong friendships with the junior officers in his company.


Benouville, Normandy, as seen in July, 1944.  These three Horsa gliders had transported Major Howard and part of D Coy, 2nd Oxf. & Bucks. just after midnight on D-Day.  The counterweight of the drawbridge can be made out through the trees in the background; Cafe Gondree can also be seen.  Photo from the Imperial War Museum.

In June 1942, Howard was promoted to Major; a month later, his son, Terry was born.  Whenever possible, Howard traveled home on weekends to spend time with his family.  Joy lived with her mother and stepfather, but eventually the Howards tried to find a home of their own, which was very difficult during wartime.  Daughter Penny was born in March, 1944.

Howard and D Company were recognized for their capabilities, and were chosen for one of the most important objectives of the invasion of Normandy:  the capture of the vital bridges at Benouville.  D Company spent several months rehearsing for the operation, even training on real bridges that were similar in size to their objectives.

When D-Day arrived in June, 1944, D Company captured both bridges intact, and held them against enemy counter-attacks.  They were reinforced by 7th Parachute Battalion, and then by ground forces from Sword Beach.  After the battle, the drawbridge over the Caen Canal was re-named Pegasus Bridge after the Airborne insignia depicting the Greek hero Bellerophon riding the winged horse Pegasus.  Similarly, the bridge over the Orne River was re-named Horsa Bridge after the main type of British glider.

Pegasus Bridge July 44

Another view of Benouville in July, 1944.  Cafe Gondree is to the right, the bridge to the left.  Notice the sign declaring the site as Pegasus Bridge has already been placed, a month after the bridge’s capture.  The Horsa gliders can be seen in the background.  Photo from the Imperial War Museum.

D Company had been led to understand that they would be withdrawn shortly after D-Day, so their hard-earned skills could be used again in further operations.  Instead, they, and the rest of 6th Airborne, were used as regular infantry and kept in the front lines until the end of August.  In all this fighting, D Company took numerous casualties, particularly amongst the officers and NCO’s.  Howard himself narrowly escaped death when a sniper’s bullet pierced his helmet, but only grazed his scalp.  2nd Oxf. & Bucks. were finally withdrawn to England, where D Company returned to training and began replacing losses.  Several of Howard’s friends had been killed in action; the sorrow of these losses combined with bitterness over being used as regular infantry when D Company’s talents and training should have been better utilized.

Another tragedy occurred in November, 1944.  Howard was driving home to Oxford to visit Joy and the children; while navigating a blind curve, he crashed head-on into an American Army truck that had pulled out of its convoy and into the wrong lane.  Howard’s lower body was shattered, and he spent several months in hospital.  While recovering, Howard learned about 6th Airborne being rushed back to the continent to help stop the enemy offensive in the Ardennes.  Then in March, 1945, 6th Airborne spearheaded the crossing of the Rhine and the attack into Germany itself.  Howard’s injuries were painful, but being away from his Battalion during these actions caused just as much misery.  By May, he had been released from hospital, but had to return for additional surgery, and missed out on the Victory in Europe celebrations.

J Howard Beret Helmet - Detail

Major John Howard’s beret and helmet, now displayed at the Memorial Pegasus in Benouville.  Photo by the author’s spouse.

John Howard never did fully recover from the driving accident.  He was forced to leave the Army, and spent the rest of his life using either crutches or a walking stick.  Howard had hoped for a long military career, and was deeply upset that this was cut short by his injuries; Joy, however, was quite happy not to have John sent overseas or being put in harm’s way.  Howard was able to focus his energy and talents on a successful career in the civil service.  He also gave several lectures on the Pegasus Bridge operation, and returned to Normandy nearly every June for the annual commemorations.  He was awarded the Distinguished Service Order for his actions on D-Day.

The book is quite extraordinary.  It is well-written, and an enjoyable read.  While I did not learn anything about the capture of Pegasus Bridge that was not already covered by other sources, it was fascinating to learn so much more about the man chiefly responsible for the success of the operation.  I already knew that John Howard had been a remarkable man, and this book brought to life his courage and determination.  The book also demonstrates the difficulties of trying to have a normal family life during wartime.  It is also a rather unique concept, in that Penny Bates wrote it in first-person narrative from her father’s perspective.  After I read the introduction, I was somewhat dubious about this approach, but the result was quite successful.

I highly recommend this book to anyone who is already familiar with the story of Major Howard and D Company, 2nd Oxf. & Bucks.; it is an excellent insight into a true hero of the Normandy campaign.  For anyone else, I would suggest starting with Stephen Ambrose’s book and then following up with this one.

The Pegasus Diaries:  The Private Papers of Major John Howard, DSO is published by Pen & Sword, and is also available through Amazon and other sources.


The Caen Canal was widened in the 1990’s, and the original Pegasus Bridge moved to a museum.  This photo shows the modern, longer bridge, with Cafe Gondree clearly seen on the opposite side of the canal.  Photo by the author’s spouse.

Book Review: Men at Arnhem

It is September as I write this; all month long, my thoughts have been on Operation Market Garden, and the annual commemorations held in the Netherlands.  I decided to re-read one of my favorite books on the subject, Men at Arnhem, by Geoffrey Powell.

Geoffrey Powell retired from the British Army in 1964 with the rank of Colonel.  He was originally an officer with The Green Howards, but was seconded to the Parachute Regiment.  For Operation Market Garden, he held the rank of Major, and commanded C Company, 156th Parachute Battalion; he was awarded the Military Cross for his actions during the operation.  Men at Arnhem is Powell’s personal account of the battle.

156th Parachute Battalion was part of 4th Parachute Brigade, 1st Airborne Division.  For Market Garden, there were insufficient aircraft to take 1st Airborne to Holland in a single lift; 4th Parachute Brigade therefore dropped on September 18, 1944, as part of the second lift.  The element of surprise had been completely lost by that point, and the paratroopers took fire during their drop.  The original plan was to head to Arnhem and reinforce the troops who had made it to the bridge.  However, enemy strength was significantly greater than expected; every time the battalion tried to advance, they hit a blocking line and took substantial casualties.  They would regroup and try again, but with the same outcome.  The battalion commander was killed, and Powell took over leadership of what remained of the unit.  Eventually, the survivors were forced to fall back and go on the defensive; they held part of the perimeter at the village of Oosterbeek, outside Arnhem.  Starving and low on ammunition, they fought as best they could from the houses and gardens of the village.  By the end of the operation, only a handful were evacuated across the Rhine.

Hartenstein IWM

Troops of 1st Airborne Division on the grounds of the Hotel Hartenstein, Oosterbeek; the hotel was used as Divisional Headquarters during Market Garden.  The men are desperately trying to signal resupply aircraft, as the enemy had overrun the designated resupply dropping zone.  Photo courtesy of the Imperial War Museum.

The book is very well-written.  The narrative flows easily, and the descriptive language is highly effective.  Stylistically, it seems like a novel, and the reader has to remember that this is not fiction; the tragic events really happened, and the descriptions of pain and loss reflect the author’s own experiences.

It helps if the reader already has a basic knowledge of the battle of Arnhem, as Powell provides little background information.  However, he describes the sensations of the battle, and his writing is highly evocative.  He describes the pressure of being under nearly-constant fire from enemy machine guns and snipers, as well as the deafening mortar and artillery fire, which drove some men to the edge of their sanity.  He expresses his frustration at the poor intelligence and the continual breakdowns in communications, as well as his bitterness at 2nd Army’s failure to break through and relieve the airborne troops.  Powell wrote about his pride in his battalion, its high level of training and esprit de corps, as well as the heartbreak of watching the unit get destroyed in just a few days.  He describes the sorrow of watching his friends and comrades being killed.  Powell felt tremendously guilty that he was unable to do more to save his men; the other survivors from the battalion, however, credited their escape to his leadership.

The revised edition includes a preface in which Powell explains that he initially found it very difficult to write about his memories of the battle.  To ease his difficulties, he wrote and originally published the book under a pseudonym, Tom Angus.  He changed the names of the people he described, and he wrote the narrative as he remembered it, which did not always match official records.

I have read a number of personal accounts of the Second World War; I consider Men at Arnhem as my favorite.  This is partly because of the subject matter; I have a particular fascination with 1st Airborne Division and Operation Market Garden.  However, it is the quality of the writing that truly impresses me; this is a powerful and evocative personal account that portrays the confusion and fear of combat, the author’s pride in his unit, and the tremendous sense of loss from the many casualties.  I cannot recommend this book enough.

Men at Arnhem is readily available through Amazon.  It is also available through the Airborne Shop,, where all purchases provide funds for Support Our Paras, a charitable organization dedicated to assisting airborne soldiers and veterans.

Men at Arnhem Cover

The McAuslan Stories

I just finished reading The Complete McAuslan by George MacDonald Fraser.  Or, rather, re-reading it, for at least the fifth time.

Fraser passed away recently, but was a remarkable author.  He fought in WWII in the Burma campaign, serving in The Border Regiment.  After the War, he was selected for officer training and became a Lieutenant in the Gordon Highlanders.  After demobilization, he spent a number of years working in newspapers, before turning his attention to fiction and screenwriting.

Fraser is probably best known for his Flashman books, some of the most meticulously-researched historical novels ever written.  However, the title character is an anti-hero; he is a misogynistic coward whose advancements are based by taking credit for the actions of others.  I love the history in the Flashman books, but I really don’t like the character and have only read a couple of the novels.

My favorite works by Fraser are Quartered Safe Out Here and the McAuslan stories.  Quartered Safe Out Here is Fraser’s memoir of fighting in the jungles of Burma.  It is quite possibly the best first-hand narrative of WWII.  I intend to write a separate post just on that book.

Several years ago, a friend suggested that I read The Complete McAuslan.  At first, I had a hard time getting into it.  I had expected a novel, with a logical chronology.  Instead, this is a collection of short stories, all set within about a two-year period, but not presented sequentially.  The stories were originally published in three volumes, but are now more commonly available as a complete set.  (Note:  the original collections were The General Danced at Dawn, McAuslan in the Rough, and The Sheikh and the Dustbin.)

The stories were originally published as fiction, inspired by Fraser’s experiences as a post-war officer.  However, he eventually admitted that the stories were true, although he fictionalized certain elements and combined some of the characters so as not to embarrass his former comrades in arms.

Fraser’s use of the English language is quite remarkable.  His journalistic training gave him a powerful command of descriptive language.  He was also highly talented at transcribing dialects; his characters range from the aristocracy to the Glasgow gutters, and their backgrounds and personalities are reflected in their dialogue.

Many of the stories are humorous, and I admit to laughing out loud while reading them.  But by the time I reach the end, I feel rather melancholy.  The stories describe a bygone era.  The older officers and sergeants reminisce about the First World War.  Most of the stories describe life in the barracks and messes, but in the collapse of the British Empire, the garrisons get turned out to keep the peace and prove their worth.

The characters are fascinating, from Private McAuslan, the “dirtiest soldier in the world”, to the massive Wee Wully and the debonair but cold-hearted Captain Errol.  Fraser deftly weaves in the traditions of the great Gordon Highlanders, without resorting to back-stories or footnotes; they are simply part of the lives he portrays.

I cannot recommend these stories enough.  Most of them are funny, some are exciting, a few are nostalgic to the point of sadness.  Even though The Complete McAuslan is typically listed as fiction, it belongs on the bookshelf of anyone interested in the history of the British Army, particularly the period just after WWII.  The descriptions of life on the parade ground, in the barracks and on exercise are based on the author’s personal experience, and have a tremendous feel of authenticity to them.

Note:  The Complete McAuslan is not always readily available in the United States; I ordered my copy through Amazon UK.


Fraser, George MacDonald
The Complete McAuslan
Harper Collins, 2000
Originally published in three volumes:
The General Danced at Dawn (Barrie & Jenkins, Ltd., 1970)
McAuslan in the Rough (Barrie & Jenkins, Ltd., 1974)
The Sheikh and the Dustbin (Collins Harvill, 1988)