Supplies from the Sky: C.L.E. Containers

History and Development

Britain’s Airborne Forces were officially formed on June 22, 1940, when Prime Minister Churchill wrote a memorandum calling for the creation of parachute and glider units.  These new Airborne units were originally similar to the Commandos, tasked with conducting raids in occupied Europe for sabotage, intelligence-gathering, and demoralizing the enemy.  As time went on, the Airborne Forces grew, and their role changed from raiding to capturing and holding key objectives ahead of conventional forces.  The 1st and 6th Airborne Divisions spearheaded the invasions of Sicily and Normandy, in July 1943 and June 1944, respectively.  The advancements in Airborne capabilities in the four years from creation to D-Day were extraordinary.  One of the most important developments was that of providing supplies to the Airborne troops.

Containers Pegasus

C.L.E. containers and wicker panniers on display at the Memorial Pegasus in Benouville, Normandy.  Author’s photograph.

In early June 1940, the Royal Air Force established the Central Landing School at R.A.F. Ringway in Manchester.  The School was created to train pilots and aircrew in emergency parachuting for escaping crippled aircraft.  After the Prime Minister issued his memorandum in late June, the School found itself tasked with training soldiers in parachuting, and a handful of Army personnel were assigned to Ringway to assist the R.A.F. both with training and administration.

By September 1940, the School was renamed the Central Landing Establishment, or C.L.E.  Eventually, the C.L.E. consisted of three units:  the Parachute School, the Glider Training Squadron, and the Development Unit.  This last unit was given the task of designing specialized equipment to support the new Airborne Forces, with an emphasis on the delivery of supplies.

In those early days, there was little enthusiasm for the Airborne Forces in either Army or R.A.F. senior command.  After all, Hitler threatened to invade Britain, and the military was more concerned with preparing for a known threat than developing a new and experimental form of warfare.  However, the Prime Minister insisted, and the R.A.F., quite reluctantly, transferred a handful of Armstrong Whitworth Whitley bombers to Ringway for parachute and glider training.

The Whitley was chosen as it was becoming obsolete as a front-line bomber because of its limited range and payload.  It was not much better suited for dropping paratroopers.  There was room for ten men to sit rather uncomfortably on the floor of the fuselage; if they were lucky, a few mattresses were provided to provide padding and insulation.  The bomb-bay doors were replaced with a simple hatchway, and the men took turns dropping through the hole.

In those early, experimental days of 1940 and 1941, very little equipment was carried by the paratroopers while jumping; some method, therefore, had to be found for delivering their weapons and ammunition.  The C.L.E.’s Development Unit conducted numerous experiments with air-dropped kit bags and weapon valises, large reinforced canvas bags, and wicker panniers.

Some early British Airborne equipment was based on German items; this was true for the helmet and the first “step-in” parachutist’s smock or “jumping jacket”.  Additionally, the German Airborne used bomb-shaped supply containers which were air-dropped via parachute; the C.L.E. determined to develop a similar “bombcell container” for British use.

The result was the C.L.E. Container Mark I, which was a hinged tube long enough to hold rifles and light machine guns; it was made from plywood with a metal framework.  One end had a fitting for a parachute, and the other end had a “percussion head” or “crash dome” attached.  The percussion head was a primitive shock absorber; it was designed to collapse upon impact, thereby reducing the amount of force imparted on the container’s contents.  The percussion head was detachable and easily replaced, so that the rest of the container could be reused.  A battery-powered beacon could be attached to the container to make it easier to find in the dark.  By early 1943, the Mark I was joined by the Mark I.T., which was similar in size and appearance, but made entirely of sheet metal.  There was also the Mark III, which had the same diameter, but was eight inches shorter.  Additionally, the Type E and Type F Containers were adopted; these were rectangular in shape, and designed specifically for radio equipment.

Attach CLE Apr 44

In April 1944, the 1st and 6th Airborne Divisions took part in a large-scale exercise in preparation for the invasion of occupied Europe.  In this photograph, two paratroopers attach a C.L.E. container to the hardpoint of a Douglas Dakota.  Note that the static line has already been attached, and the cradle is being fitted to the hardpoint.  This appears to be a Mark I container.  Photo from the Imperial War Museum.

The containers could be attached to hardpoints on the exterior of an airplane’s fuselage; each hardpoint had a mechanical release operated by the pilot.  The Type E and F containers had attachment points built into the lid, but the cylindrical containers had to be fitted with a cradle which was then attached to the hardpoint.  Additionally, the cylindrical containers could be carried and dropped from the bomb rack of a standard bomber, which had the advantage that no additional training or aircraft modifications were required.  Typically, the containers were fitted with static line parachutes, although some applications required a drogue parachute to deploy the main canopy.

In February 1942, the C.L.E.’s Development Unit was renamed the Airborne Forces Experimental Establishment.  Later that year, the R.A.F. first started using the Douglas Dakota (the Lend-Lease version of the American C-47); it was the best cargo and transport aircraft of the war.  For dropping paratroopers, the Dakota was modified by adding seats and a static line, and the soldiers jumped from a side door, which was considered by the troops to be vastly superior to dropping through the hole of a converted bomber.  These aircraft were further modified by adding six hardpoints under the fuselage for carrying containers.

As time went on, methods were developed so that paratroopers were able to drop with their weapons and other equipment, reducing their dependency on the supply containers during the initial drop.  However, the Airborne Forces grew from small raiding forces to full divisions intended to take and hold vital objectives until relieved by ground forces; aerial resupply became essential for providing ammunition, rations, medical supplies, and all the other items necessary to fight and survive on the battlefield.  Aerial resupply was also used extensively in the Far East, where heavily-laden trucks found it difficult to navigate the poor roads and dense jungles found in Burma.

The containers continued to be used after World War II, although they were re-named; the initials “C.L.E.” were retained, but the name “Container, Central Landing Establishment” was replaced with “Container, Light Equipment”.  They were last used operationally in 1956, when 3rd Battalion, the Parachute Regiment, dropped into Egypt during the Suez Crisis.  The Mark I and Type E containers were considered obsolete by 1960, but the other containers were still used for training purposes at least through the 1960’s.

C.L.E. Containers:  Variants and Details

The C.L.E. Mark I Container was made from a metal framework faced with plywood; it was constructed as two halves that were then hinged together to form a cylinder.  It was closed with two external latches.  The Mark I was 6 feet 2 ½ inches in length, with a diameter of 1 foot 2 inches; it weighed 103 ½ pounds empty, with a maximum loaded weight of 350 pounds.

The C.L.E. Mark I.T. Container was the same length as the Mark I (6 feet 2 ½ inches).  However, it was made entirely of metal, and took the form of a flat-bottomed cylinder.  It was somewhat heavier at 135 pounds, but had the same maximum loaded weight of 350 pounds.  Like the Mark I, it closed with two external latches.  After World War II, the Mark I.T. was referenced as the Mk. 1 (T).

Mark I T Apr 44

April 1944; another photograph from the same exercise as above.  Soldiers maneuver C.L.E. containers from trucks to the waiting aircraft.  The shape indicates these containers are Mark I.T. variants.  Photo from the IWM.

The C.L.E. Mark III Container was shorter than the Mark I at 5 feet 6 ½ inches.  It was completely cylindrical, with a diameter of 1 foot 2 inches.  The Mark III was made of either all-metal or metal-framed plywood construction.  The Mark III weighed 113 ½ pounds empty; the original maximum loaded weight was 350 pounds, but after extensive use the maximum weight was revised to 400 pounds.  Unlike the earlier containers, the Mark III had an internal locking mechanism; a rectangular cutout at the parachute end gave access to the locking handle.  By 1943, the Mark III was intended to replace the earlier containers, unless a specific load required the greater length.  Post-war manuals reference the Mark III as the Mk. 3.

The Type E Container was rectangular in shape with a hinged lid, and was designed specifically for dropping the Number 18 wireless/telegraphy set.  While the 1943 manual does not list the size of the Type E, it does give the weight as 89 pounds empty, or 190 pounds when loaded with the No. 18 W/T set; the 1960 manual does not reference the Type E.

Types E & F from Manual

Type E and Type F containers; illustration from Air Publication 2453, Volume I, Section 2, January 1943.

The Type F Container was also rectangular, but longer than the Type E; it was 5 feet 8 ½ inches long, and 1 foot 2 inches tall by 1 foot 2 inches wide.  The Type F could carry several different wireless/telegraphy sets, specifically the No. 11, 19, 21 or 22 sets.  The container weighed 92 pounds empty; the loaded weight varied depending on the type of W/T set carried, but the maximum weight was 340 pounds.

Regardless of type, the training manuals stated that three or four men were needed to handle a loaded container*.

Other Methods

Another item developed for dropping supplies was the wicker pannier, which was essentially a very large wicker basket.  There were two halves, the top being slightly larger than the bottom so it could fit over it.  The two halves were not attached; there were no latches or hinges.  Instead, the two halves were lashed together with webbing straps.  This gave the advantage that the size of the load did not have to be precise; the pannier could be expanded as needed.  The top half had four rope handles at the corners.  The wicker pannier had a maximum loaded weight of 500 pounds, greater than any of the “bombcell” containers.

Typically, two panniers were bundled together; this was referred to as the “daisy chain” method, and naturally allowed for the panniers to be dispatched in half the time.  One pannier was stacked on top of the other, and they were attached with lightweight ties.  Each pannier had its own parachute, but with different lengths of static line; this would cause them to open at different times, breaking the ties and separating the two panniers.

Panniers1 from Manual

Wicker panniers loaded in a Douglas Dakota; they are stacked and ready for a “daisy chain” drop.  Illustration from Air Publication 2453, Volume I, Section 5, Chapter 2, January 1943.

A variant of the Dakota was designed specifically for dropping pannier loads; a series of rollers was added to the floor to make it easier to move the panniers to the door for the drop.  With a pair of panniers having a combined weight of up to 1000 pounds, the rollers were necessary for the “daisy chain” method.  It was this type of aircraft which was piloted by Flt. Lt. David Lord, V.C., when he was shot down over Arnhem.

Some supplies were bundled together and fitted to a cargo parachute without the use of a container; this method became increasingly common as the war progressed.

The Drop

When first adopted, the C.L.E. containers were dropped in the middle of the “stick” of paratroopers to make it easier for the soldiers to find their weapons and equipment.  As time went on, there was less reliance on the containers for the initial drop, and the containers could be dropped before, after, or even simultaneously with the paratroopers.  A delayed-opening device was developed for the cargo parachute which made it safer to drop the containers alongside the paratroopers.

Mark III Op Varsity

Operation Varsity, the crossing of the Rhine, March 1945.  The container in the foreground is a Mark III; the rectangular opening for the latching mechanism’s operating handle can be clearly seen.  Photo from the Imperial War Museum.

Most resupply drops were made from about 600 feet, regardless of type of aircraft or containers used.  However, for some operations, a fast-moving fighter-bomber could carry three or four bombcell containers and get through heavy anti-aircraft fire more easily than a large bomber or cargo plane; this method was primarily used for high-priority supplies or for clandestine operations, such as dropping supplies to the various Resistance organizations.

The standard cargo parachute had a 28-foot canopy, although smaller parachutes of 18 feet and 24 feet were also made.  The cargo parachutes were made in a variety of colors so that supply drops could be color-coded.  Different types of supplies, such as rations, ammunition, and medical equipment, could be designated by the color of parachute; another method would be to color-code the supplies intended for different units.  There was not a set system, and the color-coding was varied for each operation.

Type F Arnhem Nat Army Msm

Operation Market Garden, September 1944.  A Type F container is recovered.  Photo from the National Army Museum.

While the R.A.F. naturally provided the aircraft and pilots, loading and dispatching the containers was the responsibility of the Royal Army Service Corps.  While the bombcell containers were deployed mechanically by the pilot or his designee, the wicker panniers required specially-trained Air Dispatchers to fly in the cargo hold and maneuver the panniers to the door.  Other R.A.S.C. troops were assigned to the Airborne Divisions who were responsible for gathering the supplies from the drop zones and distributing them to the rest of the Division.

Reenacting Tips

Original C.L.E. containers are highly prized on the collector’s market.  I have personally only seen originals in museums, and have never seen one in the United States.

My reenacting unit is very privileged to own a reproduction of the C.L.E. Mark III Container.  Several years ago, a member of the unit sent me an interesting proposal:  he was a professional machinist, and wanted to build a reproduction container.  He offered to make the reproduction at no charge for his labor, but requested that the unit pay for materials.  However, he had only seen photographs and asked if I had access to any schematics.  As unit leader, I quickly approved his proposal.  I had recently acquired a copy of the 1960-dated Military Parachutists Manual.  Even though published well after World War II, the manual included a chapter on resupply containers, including the Mark I.T., Mark III, and Type F.  The chapter contained line drawings, measurements, and weight tables; I scanned the entire chapter and sent it to my friend.

Mark III from 1960 Manual

The Mark III (or Mk. 3) container as illustrated in the Military Parachutists Manual (Air Publication 4215 / War Office 9514), January 1960.

The result was a reproduction of the Mark III Container.  Due to the limitations of the sheet metal available, the reproduction is slightly shorter than the original, and significantly lighter in weight.  However, I am responsible to single-handedly store and transport it, so I am very grateful it is not the full weight.  The crash dome is made from fiberglass and is somewhat fragile; however, the internal locking mechanism functions like the original.  I am very pleased with the finished product, and it has been a tremendous asset for our living history events.  We primarily use the reproduction container for public displays, particularly at air shows.  We have also used it at tactical reenactments, including events based on the Oosterbeek perimeter during Operation Market Garden.

Repro Container 2

Reproduction C.L.E. Container Mark III at a public display.  Author’s photograph.

*My favorite film is A Bridge Too Far; however, while the scene where the young soldier carries a loaded container over his shoulder is very dramatic, it is also highly unrealistic.


By Air to Battle:  The Official Account of the British First and Sixth Airborne Divisions
His Majesty’s Stationary Office, 1945

Military Parachutists Manual
Air Publication 4215, War Office Code 9514
Section 6, Chapter 3:  “Supplies Dropping Containers”
January 1960

Bouchery, Jean, and Charbonnier, Phillipe
D-Day Paratroopers:  The British, The Canadians, The French
Histoire & Collections, 2004

Gregory, Barry
British Airborne Troops
MacDonald & Jane’s, 1974

Tanner, John, General Editor
RAF Airborne Forces Manual:  The Official Air Publications for RAF Paratroop Aircraft and Gliders, 1942-1946
RAF Museum Series, Volume 8
Arms and Armour Press, 1979
[Includes Reprints of Air Publications 2453 (January 1943) and 2453A (July 1945)]

The website of the Airborne Assault Museum

“By Order of an Officer”: The Emergency Ration Tin


One of the items most commonly issued to British troops in the Second World War was the emergency ration.  This was a small tin containing a dense, high-calorie slab of chocolate, which was only to be consumed as a last resort when no other food source was available.


World War II emergency ration tin from the collection of the Imperial War Museum.  Note the golden color from the waterproofing lacquer.  Unlike most surviving tins, this one still retains the clasped sealing band.

The emergency ration was described in a 1942 training pamphlet.

Operational Feeding:  The Use of Field Rations (1942)


    1. The emergency ration is for men temporarily out of reach of any other source of food. In order to save weight it is made as small and light as possible. Its purpose is only to ward off hunger and exhaustion for a period of about 24 hours.  It does not purport to be a complete day’s food.  It weighs ½ pound.


    1. Emergency Ration.  This consists of a small tin box about the size of a 2-oz. tobacco tin, and contains a solid mixture of a chocolate type of food, concentrated to give the maximum amount of food value for weight carried.  It is intended only to be used in EMERGENCY when all other sources of supply fail.  It is issued on the scale of ONE to every officer and man and MUST NOT BE EATEN EXCEPT ON THE ORDERS OF AN OFFICER.  It can be either chewed in small pieces or ground up and mixed with hot water to make a sustaining drink.

The lid of the tin was embossed with instructions, including a warning that the ration was only to be consumed on the orders of an officer.  The tin was made as weatherproof as possible; the exterior was treated with a waterproofing lacquer which gave it a golden color.  The lid’s raised edge contained a rubber gasket to prevent moisture getting inside the tin; a clasped metal band then sealed the tin shut.

Tins Repro & Orig

Two original emergency ration tins (below) with a reproduction from What Price Glory (above).  The lower right tin still has its waterproofing lacquer.  Author’s collection.

There was a pervasive belief amongst the soldiers, continued on by militaria collectors, that the emergency ration chocolate contained Benzedrine, an early form of amphetamine.  The lid’s embossed warning certainly seemed to give weight to the theory, however recent historians believe there was never any truth to the rumor.  The chocolate was probably enriched with vitamins and may have contained caffeine.  However, to my knowledge at least, the exact contents have not been determined, although there must be a wartime record of the ingredients in an archive somewhere waiting to be discovered.  Regardless, the intent of the emergency ration was to provide as many calories as possible in a small, weather-resistant and easy-to-carry package.  Like modern chocolate bars, it was pre-segmented; that is, there were grooves molded into the slab to make it easier to break into smaller pieces.

Once the contents were consumed, soldiers often kept the tin as a convenient way to carry tobacco or other small items; for example, the Imperial War Museum’s collection includes an emergency ration tin that still contained a packet of Japanese cigarettes when the Museum acquired it.  This is the likely reason why many of the tins have survived, and are now a popular collector’s item.  Not surprisingly, tins still containing the actual ration chocolate are very rare, and therefore highly prized.  Many surviving tins have also lost their gold-colored waterproofing lacquer.


Underside of the lid from an original tin.  Note that the red rubber weatherproofing gasket has partially survived.  Author’s collection.

Reenacting Tips

The emergency ration was typically issued to all troops at the beginning of an operation.  It is therefore an item that should be carried by any reenactor who wants to get the details correct.  While one can still find originals, they can be somewhat expensive; fortunately, reproductions are readily available.  I do not typically like to either endorse or criticize specific products or vendors on this website; however, I am going to make an exception in this case.  The emergency ration tin available from What Price Glory is an outstanding product; I have two originals, and the reproduction compares very favorably.  It is also quite inexpensive, so there really is no reason for reenactors not to have one.  The reproduction tin comes empty, ready to be filled with whatever one wishes to put inside.

At most living history events, I use my emergency ration tin as a miniature first aid and survival kit, containing bandages, allergy and pain medicines, a small compass, and folding scissors.  I normally also keep a few boiled sweets or cough drops inside.

If one wishes to use the emergency ration tin for its original purpose, a number of options are available.  I have an online friend in the UK who makes chocolate slabs specifically designed to fit the emergency ration tin and replicate the appearance of the original item; he sells them on eBay and Etsy (search for “Pegasus WW2 Displays”).  Other options, less authentic but perhaps more practical, would be to repackage a normal chocolate bar or energy bar; some trimming and reconfiguring is typically required.  The original ration chocolate was wrapped in waxed or greaseproof paper, although some may have used cellophane.  To repackage a normal energy or chocolate bar, use clear cling wrap or waxed paper.  I like to use unbleached waxed paper, which has a more vintage look than normal waxed paper; I purchased mine at a health food specialty store.

For the following photos, I used two different products, a Promax Chocolate Peanut Crunch protein bar and a Cadbury Fruit and Nut chocolate bar.


The Promax bar was long and narrow; however, the thickness was just right for the tin.  I cut the bar in half and then cut a groove in the top of each half to try to replicate the appearance of the original ration (admittedly, the grooves did not really add anything).  I then placed one half next to the other and wrapped them in a small piece of unbleached waxed paper.

Protein Bar

For the chocolate, my plan was to carefully cut the bar in half, but it came out of the wrapper already broken in two.  I then stacked one half on top of the other and wrapped in more waxed paper.  Note that the Cadbury chocolates sold in the US are actually made domestically by Hershey’s under a licensing arrangement; they are not the same size as the British-made products.

Choco Prep

The original emergency ration was a very dense slab of chocolate.  However, I chose a Cadbury Fruit & Nut to put in my reproduction tin because I wanted the extra protein from the almonds.

I found it easier to wrap the Cadbury bar than the Promax bar, which resulted in a more satisfactory appearance.

Wrapped Choco

The completed process:  two stacked halves of a Cadbury chocolate bar wrapped in unbleached waxed paper.  It is not completely accurate, but reasonably close.


What Price Glory reproduction emergency ration tin:

Pegasus WW2 Displays on Etsy:


Operational Feeding:  The Use of Field Rations (1942)
His Majesty’s Stationary Office

Bouchery, Jean
The British Soldier: From D-Day to V-E Day
Volume 1:  Uniforms, Insignia, Equipment
Histoire & Collections

Forty, George
British Army Handbook, 1939 – 1945
Sutton Publishing, 1998

Blanco: 20th Century Pipeclay

In a recent article, I wrote about the development of the 1937 Pattern Web Equipment.  No article on the subject would have been complete without at least a reference to Blanco.  Since then, I have decided to explore the subject further.  The website Blanco and Bull has the most complete description and history of the product itself that I have seen.  This article, then, is intended as a social history of the use of Blanco by the common soldier.


During the 18th and 19th Centuries, the qualities that were considered most essential in a British soldier were a well-turned out appearance, and the ability to perform drill.  Buttons and boots had to be immaculately polished.  Leather equipment was typically issued in a light buff color, but had to be whitened by careful application of pipeclay; this chalky powder was mixed with water to make a paste.

Forcing soldiers to maintain a smart appearance was far more than just regimental vanity; it helped instill both pride and discipline.  This discipline was vital for the tactics of the time; smoothbore muskets were most effective when fired in large volleys, and it took an iron will to withstand an enemy’s fire while maneuvering into position.  More than anything else, it was this discipline that set the British soldier apart from his enemies.

While weapons and uniforms underwent significant transformation during the Victorian era, the attitudes of officers and NCO’s remained consistent.  Rifles replaced muskets, yet “spit and polish” was still considered more important than marksmanship.

Around 1880, the Joseph Pickering & Sons company developed a replacement for pipeclay; this was Blanco, promoted as a cleaner that could “remove stains and discolorations” from leather shoes, equipment, and sporting goods.  Blanco was produced as a cake of compressed white powder; like the pipeclay it replaced, it formed a paste when water was added.  It was promoted to both soldiers and civilians; however, the advertisements were somewhat misleading, as Blanco covered over discolorations rather than removing them.  Regardless, Blanco was found superior than pipeclay, and was officially adopted by the Army.


Blanco:  1950’s production Khaki Green No. 3 made by Joseph Pickering & Sons, Ltd. along with an Indian-made copy of the original white Blanco.  While the Indian version is noticeably smaller, the deep well is based on Pickering’s earliest products.  All photographs in this article are by the author.

While the soldier on home service or garrison duty was expected to have an immaculate appearance, standards were more relaxed on active service.  By the close of the 19th Century, British soldiers increasingly found themselves fighting enemies armed with rifles rather than swords and spears; soldiers on campaign were allowed to stain their leather equipment with tea to make it less visible.  The Army even adopted khaki uniforms for use overseas, although troops on home service still wore scarlet.  In response, Pickering’s developed Khaki Blanco, essentially the same product but with a coloring agent.

In the early 20th Century, cotton web equipment replaced leather.  Blanco was found to be even more effective on the new webbing; when applied with a stiff-bristled brush, one could get it into the weave of the material.  Khaki Blanco was already similar in color to the base webbing, but Pickering’s created new colors, including Web Blanco, which was a light pea-green.

After the Great War, Pickering’s adopted a numbering system for their products.  Khaki Blanco and Web Blanco were replaced by No. 61 Buff, No. 103 Khaki Green (Light), No. 97 Khaki Green (Medium), and others.  No. 97 was the color used by most units at the outbreak of World War II.  By D-Day, most units had adopted Khaki Green No. 3, or simply KG3.  While KG3 became the most common color, there were some units that retained other shades for the sake of their own traditions.

Impact on Soldiers

What was intended as a simple item to help give the soldier a smart appearance took on a life of its own.  Like its forebear, Blanco was one of the dreaded tools imposed on new recruits, who spent hours slaving over their webbing, polishing the brass and applying just the right thickness of Blanco.  This mindless and repetitive task was part of the Army’s procedure for turning individuals into well-disciplined soldiers.

To add insult to injury, Blanco was not typically an issued item; soldiers had to purchase their own from the NAAFI*.  Fortunately, NAAFI was a non-profit organization dedicated to improving the lives of British servicemembers; they contracted with Pickering’s to make bulk purchases of Blanco to sell at the lowest price possible.

When first purchasing Blanco, the soldier would get it in a round box made of zinc, which would not rust when wet.  Refills were simply wrapped in paper.  Each cake was made as a flat-bottomed disc; the top was dished for holding a small amount of water to get mixed with the product.


Post-WWII cake of K.G.3 in the zinc box designed to hold Blanco.  Zinc was chosen because it does not rust when wet.

Like many items in the British Army, the word Blanco was originally a noun but frequently used as a verb; a soldier Blancoed (or blanco’d) his webbing.  In this usage, capitalization and spelling lost any consistency.  Additionally, the Mills Equipment Company, the primary contractor for webbing equipment, created their own “web cleaner”; this was a loose colored powder sold in a shaker tube, but was still called Blanco by the soldiers.

Stanley Swift enlisted in the Royal Artillery in 1940 and wrote of his experiences.

“We were given blanco, a greenish type of chalk which when dipped in water became a liquid mass.  We had to blanco our equipment and polish our brass, which was a gorgeous shade of green when we received it, and clean and spit and polish some more.  It was punishment of the first order.  And it was evil the way we were expected to do everything in ten minutes and turn out on parade.”

After his initial training, Swift was transferred to the 5th Royal Horse Artillery.

“We arrived about 3:00 a.m. at Coggeshall, somewhere in the middle of nowhere in the south of England, and we were immediately told to blanco our webbing as it was the wrong color for the regiment.  At 3:00 a.m.!”

After further training, Swift was sent to Egypt to join 8th Army.  The Allies had not yet taken control of the Mediterranean, so the convoy of troopships and escorts sailed all the way around Africa to the Suez Canal; the journey took several weeks.

“Such a great number of troops on board ship must be kept occupied, so each man was given a great lump of blanco.  This we were told to daub on our webbing equipment.  We didn’t take very kindly to this enforced activity, so everybody as one man threw his blanco into the ocean.  This time we must have dyed the sea green.  Nothing was ever said.  Our restlessness in being locked in a ship for a full month, crammed like sardines, was no joke, so it was well-meant to try to keep us occupied but not very successful.”

Oh, What a Lovely War!  A Soldier’s Memoir
Stanley Swift


Underside of the zinc box.  While zinc does not rust, it does slowly oxidize, and this tin developed a hole through the Pickering’s trademark.

James Sims had a similar experience when he joined the Royal Artillery in 1943.

“I completed almost a year at Larkhill on Salisbury Plain with the 4th Field Training Regiment, Royal Artillery, and didn’t much care for it.

If you had any spirit at all the RA seemed determined to break it.  Their attitude has been summed up as follows:

If it moves – salute it!
If it stands still – blanco it!
If it’s too heavy to lift – paint it!”

After meeting a recruiting sergeant from the Parachute Regiment, he volunteered for the Airborne Forces.

“…We had to report to Clay Cross, the Airborne Forces Depot near Chesterfield.  Here we were taught battle drill.  We were also given special lectures and shown training films.  There was some bull but it was nothing like as bad as in the RA.  We did, however, have to blanco our equipment for guards, even our para steel helmets.”

Arnhem Spearhead
James Sims

“Bull” was originally a term for polishing boots, but became soldier’s slang for any mindless, repetitive task.  Based on the statement about the helmet, it seems likely Sims was issued a jump helmet with a webbing chinstrap, which was typically Blancoed, as opposed to the earlier leather chinstraps.

After World War II, conscription continued through the 1950’s, and was known as National Service.  Even though the world had changed by this point, the British Army’s attitudes and methods had not.  Tony Thorne wrote of his experience of National Service.

“We were issued khaki belts and gaiters.  These have to be Blanco’d.  Blanco is not white as the name might imply, but khaki.  It is like a slab of chalk, which must be dissolved with water to exactly the right consistency, so that it can be painted on to the webbing smoothly.  In fact it produces tiny lumps like mother’s gravy, which then increase in size when they dry on the webbing.  The belt has little brass clips and the gaiters have little brass buckles at the opposite end to the black leather straps.  The brasses must be shone with Brasso and the leather straps must be polished with boot polish.  One of the miracles of military design is that all these cleaning materials are chemically allergic to one another.  If the tiniest spot of Brasso makes any form of contact with the Blanco on the webbing, a small white ring appears which remorselessly spreads outwards in ever-increasing circles until it forms a huge unsightly stain.  No man has ever discovered any method of removing this stain other than re-painting the dreaded Blanco about two hundred times.  Even then, one can collapse exhausted into the pit thinking that the damned spot is out, only to be greeted by it poking its head out anew at 5.30 am just half an hour before the morning inspection.”

Brasso, Blanco & Bull
Tony Thorne

While Blanco was consistently used in Britain and the European Theater, it was not suitable to all conditions.  Troops in the Far East learned that Blanco quickly washed off their webbing in the Monsoon rains; webbing had to be vat-dyed a jungle green color.  Troops sent to North Africa typically arrived with green-Blancoed webbing unsuited for the desert.  While some units used khaki Blanco, most troops used salt water and a stiff brush to scrub the green Blanco out of their equipment and allowed the webbing to get sun-bleached to a nearly-white color.

In the 1950’s, Pickering’s created a new webbing renovator, which was sold as a tin of colored paste.  The colors were based on Blanco, but the product was easier to apply.  The Army then adopted 1958 Pattern webbing equipment, which was manufactured in dark green.  While cadets and reservists continued using 1937 Pattern equipment through the 1980’s, Blanco finally became obsolete, and Joseph Pickering & Sons, Ltd., went out of business.

Reenacting Tips

Many years ago, my friend and I attended a public event; we wore our best battledress, and we had given our boots and cap badges a good polish.  We were approached by a pair of gentlemen who had served in the British Army and fought in Burma.  Living in the United States, meeting British veterans is a rare treat.  One of the pair had been a Regimental Sergeant Major; the other joked that the RSM had spent so much time up a tree in the jungle that he had grown a tail.

The former RSM said he had seen many reenactors over the years, but had never been impressed with them.  But he paid us a tremendous compliment by saying that we were by far the best he had seen, because we held ourselves with the correct military bearing, and we had taken the time to polish our boots and badges.  However, he then asked why my webbing belt was not Blancoed.

I was hugely embarrassed.  I tried to explain that Blanco had become extremely rare; at that point, I had only ever seen Blanco cakes on display at military museums.  He was astonished that something that had once been completely ubiquitous had become a collector’s item.

Millions of cakes of Blanco were produced over the decades, but most were used for their intended purpose.  Real Blanco was discontinued in the 1950’s; a post-war cake can occasionally be found by diligently searching internet auction sites, but it is rare, and it is not cheap.

Fortunately, a number of Blanco reproductions and substitutes have become available.  Two of the largest UK-based reenactment suppliers carry products they describe as “liquid Blanco”; these are essentially custom-colored paint.  I have not used these personally, but several friends have been pleased with these products.

Another vendor in the UK has managed to develop a true reproduction Blanco, that is, a cake of compressed powder.  The reproduction cake is somewhat smaller than the original, and the well is very shallow.  However, it is the closest item I have found to the original; it looks, feels, and even smells like original Blanco.  It even comes packaged in a reprint of Pickering’s paper wrapper, which is a nice touch.

A company in India produced its own version of Blanco for the Indian Army, and it is currently available through a US-based reenacting vendor.  Unfortunately, it is only available in white and khaki.  The Indian cake is smaller than the original, but it has a deep well on top like the early versions of Pickering’s.


The zinc box only needed to be purchased once.  Refills came in a simple paper wrapper.  After World War II, the traditional printing was eliminated.

Some reenacting genius discovered a shoe cream that is a similar color to KG3 and applies easily to webbing.  A small amount of model paint can be mixed with the shoe cream to get even closer to the right color.  This shoe cream seems to be fairly similar in consistency to the post-war Pickering’s web-cleaning paste.  I have had very good results with the shoe cream mixture; it is easy to apply and is overall less messy than the liquids and compressed powders.  My only complaint is that it is not very durable and needs frequent touching-up.


1937 Pattern belt and braces drying after having been treated with a mixture of shoe cream and model paint.  The original Blanco was used to ensure correct color matching.

The Blanco and Bull website is an excellent resource; not only does it have more detail on the history of Blanco, it also compares the different reproductions summarized above.

Whatever method is used, do it outside and put down newspaper or plastic sheeting.  Just staging the photographs for this article turned my fingertips green; the stuff gets everywhere.

*The Navy, Army, and Air Force Institute, or NAAFI, is the organization responsible for maintaining shops and canteens for British servicemen and women.


The Pattern 1937 Web Equipment (1939)
His Majesty’s Stationary Office

Barthorp, Michael
The British Army on Campaign, 1882 – 1902
Osprey Publishing, 1988

Brayley, Martin J.
British Web Equipment of the Two World Wars
Europa Militaria:  The Crowood Press Ltd., 2005

Chappell, Mike
British Infantry Equipments 1908 – 80
Osprey Publishing, 1980

Farwell, Byron
Mr. Kipling’s Army
W. W. Norton & Company, 1981

Holmes, Richard
Redcoat:  The British Soldier in the Age of Horse and Musket
W. W. Norton & Company, 2001

Sims, James
Arnhem Spearhead
First published by Imperial War Museum, 1978, Republished by Arrow Books, Ltd., 1989

Swift, Stanley, and Luscher, Evelyn A.
Oh, What a Lovely War! A Soldier’s Memoir
Hellgate Press, 1999

Thorne, Tony
Brasso, Blanco & Bull
Constable & Robinson, Ltd., 1998

Blanco and Bull:  The Webbing and Boot Cleaning Website


To Carry the Load: The 1937 Pattern Web Equipment

History and Development

Throughout history, armies have needed to provide their soldiers a set of equipment to carry ammunition, rations, and other necessities.  Historically, this equipment was made of leather, and typically consisted of various pouches suspended from belts and shoulder straps.  If well-cared for, the leather was strong and durable; but if not properly maintained, or subjected to severe weather, it was liable to dry out and crack.

In the late 19th Century, military equipment was revolutionized by an American Army officer, Captain Anson Mills.  He noted that ammunition tended to get stuck in the individual cartridge loops of the leather belts worn by his men; he therefore experimented with a cartridge belt made from cotton canvas.  Pleased with the results, Captain Mills joined forces with a weaver; together, they designed machinery and established a factory for making cartridge belts made from a tightly-woven cotton webbing.  These were in turn adopted by the U.S. Army and used successfully in the Spanish-American War of 1898.  Soon after, a limited number of webbing bandoliers were used by British troops in the Anglo-Boer War (1899 – 1902).

In addition to his American operation, Captain Mills established a second company in Great Britain:  The Mills Equipment Company, Ltd.  This company designed and produced the 1908 Pattern Web Equipment, the first complete set of non-leather infantry equipment adopted by the British Army.  During World War I, the 1908 webbing performed extremely well, and held up under the appalling conditions of trench warfare better than other armies’ leather equipment.

normandy webbing rsf

A section of 6th Battalion, Royal Scots Fusiliers, fighting in the Normandy hedgerows in June or July, 1944.  This is a good view of the 1937 Pattern web equipment:  the haversacks, entrenching tool carriers and waterbottle carriers are clearly seen.  The Bren gunner has covered his haversack with the camouflaged face veil.  Photo from the collection of the Imperial War Museum.

With the massive conscription efforts of World War I, millions of sets of 1908 Pattern webbing were produced.  At wars’ end, the Army was drastically reduced in size, and returned to its primary function of garrisoning the British Empire.  There were enormous stocks of 1908 Pattern equipment in stores, and the British government was reluctant to invest in developing a replacement.

In the late 1920’s, it was recognized that the nature of warfare was changing; accordingly, the government authorized the Mills Equipment Company to experiment with designs for a possible new set of equipment.  The Army maintained official oversight and established a committee to provide input, but otherwise Mills was left largely to their own development.  The designers wanted the new equipment to be lighter in weight than the 1908 Pattern.  Additionally, the Army was becoming increasingly mechanized.  It was assumed that troops would be transported to the front lines rather than having to march; to better accommodate usage in vehicles, the designers wanted to avoid having any components of the equipment hang below the waistbelt.  It was also assumed that the heavier and bulkier items of uniform and gear would be transported by vehicle and not carried by the soldiers themselves.

By 1932, the Mills Equipment Set Number 3 underwent troop trials, and was then officially adopted in 1934.  However, this set was never produced or distributed in large numbers; the adoption of the Bren light machine gun, and the need to carry its magazines, required a significant re-design.

The result was adopted and designated as the 1937 Pattern Web Equipment; the official training manual was published in 1939.  According to the manual, the 1937 Pattern was a direct descendent of, and improvement upon, the 1908 Pattern; unfortunately, the troops who transitioned from one to the other did not see it as an improvement.  However, in one major respect, it was a departure from all earlier designs.  Historically, the different arms had their own specific equipment; that is, one set for the infantry, another for the cavalry, and often yet another for the artillery and engineers.  The 1937 Pattern was designed to be used by the entire British Army; component pieces intended for one branch could be interchanged for other components.  The equipment was based around a waistbelt and a pair of braces, or shoulder straps.  From there, different pouches and packs could be attached depending on the role of the individual soldier; there were also items designed specifically for officers.  For the purposes of this article, only the infantry equipment will be examined in detail.

Like the 1908 Pattern, the 1937 Pattern equipment was made from cotton webbing.  The cotton yarn was pre-shrunk and dyed a light khaki color before weaving; the weave design was extremely tight for both durability and water-resistance.  The various buckles, keepers and press-studs (snap closures) were made of brass.

webbing desert

The 1937 Pattern Web Equipment for infantry:  waistbelt, braces, basic pouches, bayonet frog, entrenching tool carrier, and water bottle carrier.  Troops in North Africa typically wore their webbing without Blanco.  All photographs in this article are by the author of items in his collection, unless otherwise stated.

The Mills Equipment Company was the primary contractor, but with the outbreak of World War II, dozens of other manufacturers throughout Britain and the Commonwealth also made webbing equipment; it was produced in Canada, Australia, India and South Africa.  Canadian webbing was of very high quality, and tended to have a yellow tinge to its khaki color.  Indian and South African webbing tended to be much poorer in quality; the webbing itself was often less-densely woven, while the brass keepers were somewhat thin and flimsy.

Brass was a vital war material, as it was needed for ammunition casings.  As World War II progressed, the various buckles and keepers were sometimes made from mild steel with an anti-rust treatment.  Much post-war equipment was made with mild steel hardware painted black.

After World War II, the 1937 Pattern equipment soldiered on in Korea and several colonial conflicts during the breakup of the British Empire.  It was finally replaced by the 1958 Pattern Web Equipment, but the 1937 Pattern was used by cadets and reservists nearly to the end of the 20th Century.


The infantry components of the 1937 Pattern webbing were as follows:

  • Waistbelt
  • Braces
  • Basic pouches
  • Bayonet frog
  • Waterbottle carrier
  • Haversack
  • Pack
  • Shoulder straps
  • Supporting straps

Details of these items follow.

Waistbelt.  The waistbelt was originally made in two sizes, labeled as small and large.  In 1941, an extra large size was adopted; the small size was later renamed as normal.  The belt was adjustable by placing two pairs of hooks into a series of loops on the inside of the belt.  The buckle was a simple clasp that relied on the tension caused by a tight fit to keep it closed.  The back of the belt had a pair of buckles to which the braces attached.

Braces.  The braces were made in two sizes, normal and long.  The braces were significantly narrower than those of the 1908 Pattern, except at the shoulders where the braces widened to better distribute the weight of the equipment.  The left brace included a small loop through which the right brace was fed; this loop was often eliminated in later production versions.

Basic pouches.  Two large pouches, designated as basic pouches, were attached to the front of the belt via brass hooks which were inserted into the belt’s loops.  The pouches also had buckles at the top for attaching the braces.  The basic pouch was designed to hold two magazines for the Bren L.M.G.; alternatively, the pouch could hold grenades or projectiles for the 2-inch mortar.  Rifle ammunition was issued in a cloth bandolier which was worn over the shoulder to allow the basic pouches to carry ammunition for the support weapons.

After the Dunkirk evacuation, many soldiers complained that their basic pouches were too low and hit their thighs when getting into a crouching or kneeling position.  Accordingly, the Mark II pouch was introduced, with the brass hooks moved down one inch, causing the pouch to ride slightly higher on the belt.  Many of the original pouches were retrofitted to the Mk. II configuration.  After the adoption of the Sten machine carbine, the Mark III pouch was adopted, as the earlier pouches were too short to snap shut when filled with Sten magazines.  In 1944, a quick-release tongue-and-loop fastener was adopted to replace the snap fastener; very few pouches with this fastener were issued during the war.

burma 44

Troops from the Royal Welch Fusiliers on patrol in Burma, December 1944.  The basic pouches and position of the waistbelt are clearly seen here.  Photo from the Imperial War Museum.

Bayonet frog.  As originally issued, the only item suspended from the waistbelt was the bayonet frog.  The Rifle, No. 1 Mk. III, with its lengthy 1907 Pattern bayonet, was still in use when the webbing was adopted.  However, the No. 4 Rifle and its short spike bayonet were under development, reducing the designers’ concern over an item hanging below the belt.  The bayonet frog incorporated a number of loops, the largest of which simply slipped onto the belt, rather than using any hardware.  The bayonet scabbard was held by a twin pair of loops at the bottom of the frog; the scabbard stud protruded between the loops.  Yet another loop at the top of frog went over the bayonet hilt to reduce movement; this upper loop was often eliminated once the spike bayonet went into production.  Later frogs also had to be slightly modified to allow the spike bayonet’s scabbard to sit in the right position; this was often done by making a hole or split in the upper of the twin loops through which the scabbard stud was inserted.

bayonet frogs

Bayonet frogs.  Notice how the frog had to be modified for use with the Number 4 spike bayonet.  Typically, a hole was cut in the upper of the twin loops; in this instance, the loop has been split, then stitched around the scabbard stud.

Waterbottle carrier.  The original waterbottle carrier was described as a framework of webbing straps; collectors sometimes call it the “skeleton-type” carrier.  Later in the war, a simple webbing sleeve carrier was adopted.  Originally, the waterbottle was intended to be carried in the haversack, and the carrier only used under certain conditions, but in actual practice it was nearly always suspended from the brace ends.  For more information on the waterbottle and carrier, please my earlier article on field hydration.

Haversack.  The haversack was often called the “small pack”, both by the troops who used it and by modern collectors.  The haversack had internal dividers; the smaller pockets were for the water bottle and mess tins, while the larger section was for the wool jumper or cardigan.  The groundsheet was folded and carried under the flap of the haversack; although not described in the training manual, the anti-gas cape was frequently rolled and tied to the top.  Invariably, troops carried more equipment in the haversack than the designers intended; although not an official practice, the tea mug was often suspended from the haversack by running a strap through the mug’s handle.

small packs

A pair of haversacks, one filled and one empty.  The right-hand haversack is in nearly-new condition and shows the color of the webbing when issued.  The left-hand haversack has been treated with Blanco, most recently with a modern substitute.  The left-hand haversack is unusual in that the buckles are brass, but the strap-keepers are steel.

small pack interior

Interior of the haversack showing the internal dividers and some of the typical contents (waterbottle, mess tins, and holdall).

Pack.  The 1908 Pattern pack was re-adopted, unchanged, for use with the 1937 Pattern equipment.  If the pack was worn, the haversack was moved from the back to the left side.  The pack was intended to carry the greatcoat, cap comforter, holdall (toiletry roll), towel, and a spare pair of socks.  However, the socks and holdall were more commonly carried in the haversack.  The pack was uncomfortable when worn, but fortunately this was rarely done, as the pack was typically kept with unit transport.  The pack was often called the “large pack” to better differentiate it from the haversack or “small pack”.

Shoulder straps.  The shoulder straps could be used with either the pack or the haversack.  Each shoulder strap consisted of two lengths of webbing; the wide portion buckled to the top of the pack, and the narrow portion to the lower.  These component straps then joined at a brass hook for attaching to the basic pouch, intended to help distribute the weight.  Because of their shape, the shoulder straps are often referred to as “L-straps” by modern collectors.

Supporting straps.  The supporting straps connected to the shoulder straps and crossed over the pack; the name derives from the idea that they would help support the weight of the pack when worn.

Entrenching tool.  At first, the 1937 Pattern equipment did not include an entrenching tool.  In 1939, an entrenching tool with a fixed haft and square head was rushed into production; it was very similar in appearance to that used by the Germans.  Not many of these were issued, and those troops who did receive the item did not like it.  The 1908 Pattern entrenching tool was therefore re-adopted; this was a combination pick and shovel, with a removable handle or helve.  The Mark II helve, adopted in 1944, had lugs for attaching the Number 4 spike bayonet so the helve could be used as a mine-prodder; this version saw very limited use during the war.  The webbing carrier for the entrenching tool held the tool head inside a pocket, with the helve strapped to the outside; the carrier was suspended from the brace ends.  It was not uncommon for the helve to slip out of the carrier; an extra strap was added to the carrier in 1945, but few of this variant were issued before war’s end.


The entrenching tool carrier; the tool’s head is enclosed in the webbing pocket while the helve is strapped to the outside.  Note that this is the Mark I helve; the Mark II had a bayonet lug for the spike bayonet.

How to Assemble

The following description is copied from the 1939 manual; however, the references to the manual’s photographs have been omitted.

  1. Fit the waistbelt comfortably tight by adjusting each end equally. Adjustment is made by withdrawing the double hooks (at the ends of the belt) from the loops woven inside and re-inserting them into loops a corresponding distance from each end.  Before re-inserting the hooks, the belt may be tried on, and adjusted as may be necessary.  Once the belt is fitted it need seldom be altered.  The hooks are inserted by pinching up the webbing… fasten the hook and loop buckle, by passing the hook part through the loop of the other part and not by catching the hook over the outer bar.
  2. Slip the bayonet frog over the left end of the belt and bring it to a position so that it will hang, when the belt is put on, upon the left hip.
  3. Attach the basic pouches on the outside of the belt by passing the double hooks over the upper and lower edges of the belt and inserting the hooks into the woven loops, so that they correspond each side, in a position to bring the buckles on top of the pouches in line with the centres of the shoulders.
  4. Pass one end of the right brace (without loop inside) through the loop inside the rear end of the left brace and attach the rear ends of each brace to the respective buckle on the back of the belt. Pass the front ends of the braces through the centre opening of the buckle on top of the basic pouches, taking care not to twist the braces in doing so.  Try the equipment on and make any necessary adjustment of the braces at all four points of attachment to ensure that they extend below the lower edge of the belt equally, thus ensuring that the wide portions of the braces lie evenly on the shoulders.  Finally, pass the free front ends of the braces down behind the pouches, between the back of the pouch and the web chape carrying the buckle, and pull down firmly.

This detail shows the method of assembly.  The backside of the belt has a series of loops for the hooks on the belt-ends as well as the hooks on the basic pouch.  The brace is buckled to the top of the pouch, and the waterbottle carrier buckles to the brace-end.

Orders of Wear

There were four designated Orders of Wear, as follows:

Marching Order:  waistbelt; bayonet frog; pouches; braces; pack with shoulder straps and supporting straps; haversack hung on left hip; waterbottle and carrier hung on right hip; entrenching tool carrier hung on rear.

Battle Order:  as Marching Order, but without pack; the haversack is worn on the back.  Officially, the waterbottle was to be carried inside the haversack in Battle Order, but this was rare in actual practice.

Musketry Order:  waistbelt; braces; pouches; bayonet frog.

Drill Order:  waistbelt and bayonet frog.

Differences from the Training Manual

The 1939 manual for the 1937 Pattern Web Equipment describes it as a development of the 1908 Pattern, but lighter in weight.  While it was lighter, it was not necessarily an improvement; the 1908 Pattern was well-balanced and comfortable, while it was difficult to adjust the 1937 Pattern to a comfortable fit.

The manual describes the haversack as being worn “rucksack-fashion”, and goes on to state that it was easy to remove and get to its contents (I laughed the first time I read that statement).  The haversack was best worn high on the back; if it hung low, it bounced during marching or running.  Unfortunately, tightening the shoulder straps to get the haversack to ride high made it much more difficult to take off.  Additionally, as noted above, far more items were carried in the haversack than originally intended; the increased weight and bulk also made it harder to get a comfortable fit.

The official manual also states, “When the equipment has once been properly fitted it will be kept assembled as far as possible.”  However, as noted above, Drill Order consisted of just the belt and bayonet frog.  Training sessions alternated between foot drill and fieldcraft, which meant frequent disassembly and reassembly of the equipment.  Further, many units ordered that the waistbelt was to be worn separately as a “walking out” item with best battledress.

The section of the manual on care and preservation states, “Should the equipment become in a dirty or greasy condition, it may be washed, using warm water, soap and a sponge.  Then rinse with clean water, and when thoroughly dry apply the cleaner in the manner laid down in the instructions accompanying it.  No cleaner may be applied to the equipment unless previously approved by the War Office… The metal work will not be polished, but allowed to get dull, so as to avoid catching the rays of the sun.”


A series of basic pouches.  The one farthest left is a Mark II pouch, without Blanco; the remainder are Mark III pouches.  The center pouch was treated with a dark shade of Blanco, but much has worn off; the pouch left of center was treated with a lighter shade, but is remarkable in how well-preserved the Blanco is.  The two pouches on the right were both made in 1944 and feature the quick-release fastener as opposed to the brass snap-closure.

There were two approved webbing cleaners, although the term “cleaner” is rather misleading.  By far the more common “cleaner” was Blanco, made by Joseph Pickering & Sons, Ltd.  This was a cake of densely-packed colored powder; a wet brush or sponge was used to build up a paste and apply it to the webbing.  The Mills Equipment Company made their own webbing cleaner, which was a colored powder sold in a shaker tube; the powder was sprinkled onto the webbing prior to adding water and brushing into the webbing.

For something that was supposed to sustain the soldier on the battlefield, the recruit’s first exposure to webbing equipment was the obsession of his superiors with a smart parade-ground appearance.  Soldiers, especially new recruits, spent countless hours polishing the brass hardware and applying just the right amount of Blanco to their equipment.  If applied too thinly so that any of the actual khaki web showed through the Blanco, the soldier was punished; yet, if it was applied too thickly, it would crack and flake off, with a similar result.  Fortunately, once on operations, a more practical approach typically prevailed.

Tips for Reenactors

When I first started collecting webbing equipment in the mid-1990’s, 1937 Pattern web equipment was cheap and plentiful; that is no longer the case.  Most components are still available, although significantly higher in price, and some items require diligent searching of the internet.

Reproductions of most items are now readily available.  It appears that all reproduction 1937 Pattern webbing is made in India; when first on the market, these reproductions were of poor quality.  Fortunately, in recent years, the webbing itself has improved, although the brass hardware still seems a bit flimsy.

People today are generally larger than seventy years ago; most reenactors would be well-advised to purchase long braces and large or extra large waistbelts.  To help ensure the correct fit, remember that the waistbelt should be worn just below the ribcage, regardless of the modern concept of the waistline; far too many reenactors wear their webbing with the belt too low.

As noted above, it was common to wear the waistbelt separately as a “walking-out” item with best battledress.  Reenactors will frequently purchase a separate belt for this purpose; this seems like a reasonable solution, but historically, soldiers had to break down their equipment to wear just the belt.

Many reenactors use the Mark II entrenching tool helve, as many of these were made post-war and are now more common than the Mark I.  However, very few Mk. II helves actually saw wartime service.

Blanco is an interesting subject, and deserves its own article.  Suffice it to say here that original Blanco has become quite scarce, but reproductions and substitutes are now available.


The Pattern 1937 Web Equipment (1939)
His Majesty’s Stationary Office

Brayley, Martin J.
British Web Equipment of the Two World Wars
Europa Militaria:  The Crowood Press Ltd., 2005

Chappell, Mike
British Infantry Equipments 1908 – 80
Osprey Publishing, 1980

Blanco and Bull:  The Webbing and Boot Cleaning Website


webbing eto

The 1937 Pattern equipment as it would have been worn in Northern Europe, but without the entrenching tool.  Original Blanco is rare; this set of equipment has been treated with a modern substitute to replicate how it would have appeared operationally.  The parade ground would have seen a much heavier application of Blanco.

Cold Steel: The Fairbairn Sykes Fighting Knife

The Second World War was a remarkable period of technological advancement. At its outbreak, some nations were still flying biplanes; by the end of the war, the first jets were being produced. The first true computer was invented as a tool for decrypting enemy cyphers. And yet, one of the most symbolic items from the period is the Fairbairn Sykes fighting knife, a dagger that is nearly Medieval in appearance.

The early stages of the war saw a series of disasters for Great Britain and her allies. In April, 1940, the British and French launched a failed campaign in Norway to resist the German invasion. In May, Germany conquered France and the Low Countries, and the British were forced to withdraw from the European continent via the port of Dunkirk. Hitler then threatened to cross the English Channel and invade Britain.

Despite the menace of invasion, newly-appointed Prime Minister Churchill felt it was dangerous to take a purely defensive stance. Churchill insisted that Britain retain an aggressive spirit and the ability to strike back, even if on a limited scale. He recalled his time as a journalist covering the Anglo-Boer War (1899 – 1902). The Boers had used fast-moving equestrian raiding parties to harass and demoralize the much-better equipped British; the Afrikaans name for such a raiding party was Kommando.

In June, 1940, Churchill called on the War Office to create their own Commandos. These would be sea-borne raiding units who would launch surprise attacks all along the enemy-held coastline. The new Commando organization was to recruit highly motivated men, give them intensive training, and instill in them a spirit of aggression and determination.

commando knife 2

A British Commando during training, 1942.  While this method of carrying the knife looked very dramatic for the camera, this was only done in very limited circumstances.  Photo courtesy the Imperial War Museum.

The Commandos became famous for their spectacular operations. They destroyed high-value targets, such as the fish oil factories in Norway; glycerin, which was extracted from fish oil, was needed by the Germans to produce high explosives. Perhaps the greatest of the Commando raids was the destruction of the massive drydocks at St. Nazaire, France. Additionally, the raiders gathered intelligence and tested enemy strength and defensive capabilities. By striking up and down the coastline of occupied Europe, the Commandos forced the Germans to allocate men and materiel to static defense that would otherwise have been available for offensive operations. Possibly most important of all, the raids captured the imagination of the British people, and helped to bolster their morale during what otherwise were very dark days.

Two men were instrumental in the early training of the Commandos: William Ewart Fairbairn and Eric Anthony Sykes. These two had been friends and colleagues for many years, and the Commandos could not have chosen anyone better to conduct their training.

Fairbairn had served in the Royal Marines; he left the service while stationed in Shanghai, where he joined the Shanghai Municipal Police (SMP), which kept order in the Anglo-American International Settlement portion of the city. In the 1920’s and 30’s, Shanghai had a reputation as the most dangerous city in the world. Trade with the West brought wealth, but that in turn attracted corruption and organized crime. In addition, China was undergoing political turmoil; the struggles between the Nationalists and the Communists often spilled into Shanghai, resulting in street brawls and political assassinations. The officers and constables of the SMP were under constant threat of violence; in response, the department became one of the best-trained and most effective police forces in the world.

Fairbairn began as a constable, and rose through the ranks to Assistant Commissioner. He became a leading authority on hand-to-hand combat; he was one of the first Westerners to study Eastern martial arts, including judo, jiu-jitsu, and kung fu. He wrote books on close combat and self-defense; he created his own system called “Defendu”, which combined and simplified the best techniques from the Asian teachings. Fairbairn, naturally, was responsible for training the SMP constables in hand-to-hand fighting.

Sykes worked part-time for the SMP as a reservist. His primary occupation was as a sales agent for numerous well-known firearms manufacturers; he himself was an expert shot and often participated in shooting competitions. He was also rumored to have been an agent for the British Secret Intelligence Service, better known as M.I.6. Sykes founded the SMP’s Reserve Unit, which specialized in hostage rescue and forced entry against barricaded suspects. The Reserve Unit was the precursor to modern police S.W.A.T. units.

The two men believed that the knife was actually more effective in close combat than the firearm. They often discussed their ideas on knife-fighting techniques as well as the design elements needed for a good fighting knife. They worked with the SMP’s armory to create a handful of prototypes.

In 1940, Sykes and Fairbairn returned to England and offered their services to the British government in support of the war effort. They were both commissioned as Army Captains, and given the responsibility to train the newly-formed Commandos. They also trained the Special Operations Executive (S.O.E.), the organization responsible for sending agents into occupied Europe to perform sabotage and recruit resistance fighters. Once the United States entered the war, Fairbairn was sent to North America to train agents of the Office of Strategic Services (O.S.S.).

In November, 1940, Sykes and Fairbairn met with John Wilkinson-Latham, the director of the famous Wilkinson Sword company, in order to discuss designs for a new Commando knife. The resulting design was influenced by the knives that Fairbairn and Sykes had experimented with in Shanghai, as well as earlier designs produced by Wilkinson. There were several elements that all had agreed upon: the blade needed to be at least 6 inches long to penetrate heavy clothing and still ensure damage to vital organs; the blade needed to be slender and double-edged; it needed to be well-balanced, preferably hilt-heavy; there must be a cross-guard; finally, the grip needed to be deeply-checkered to prevent slipping.

FS Knife

Line drawing of the original pattern of Fairbairn Sykes knife.  Note the etched ricasso and the S-curve of the cross-grip.  Drawing from All-In Fighting, by W.E. Fairbairn.

The first knives produced were magnificent weapons. The blades were 6 7/8 inches long; they were drop forged and hand-sharpened. The knife had a ricasso, that is, a flat, unsharpened section at the base of the blade; the ricasso was etched with the Wilkinson Sword logo on one side, and the legend “The F-S Fighting Knife” on the other. The grips were made of solid brass, turned on a lathe, and given a distinctive “palm swell” to the shape. The grips were then checkered by hand. The cross-guard was given a gentle S-curve, also shaped by hand. These beautifully-crafted weapons were almost entirely hand-made, and only entrusted to Wilkinson’s most experienced craftsmen.

Fairbairn preferred knives with a reflective finish; he felt that, in a face-to-face confrontation, simply flashing light off the blade would cause the opponent to lose heart and give up the fight. Accordingly, the early F-S knives had highly-polished blades, while the grips and cross-guards were nickel-plated.

Naturally, these hand-made knives were costly and time-consuming to produce. As more orders were placed for fighting knives, Wilkinson had to modify the design to increase production. The ricasso was eliminated, and the cross-guard lost its distinctive S-curve. Despite these modifications, Wilkinson could not keep up with demand, and other Sheffield knifemakers started to receive orders.

Despite Fairbairn’s theory about the psychological advantage to a shiny knife, his theory really only applied to a direct fight. Commando raids were conducted at night, and surprise was essential. While the Commandos were trained in knife fighting to instill aggressiveness, in actual operations the primary use of the knife was silently eliminating enemy sentries. Similarly, the S.O.E. only used their daggers for clandestine operations. The second pattern knives eliminated the nickel plating; the grips and cross-guards were instead blackened, and many blades were blackened as well.

Figs A - D Attacks

More drawings from All-In Fighting.  Figures A & B illustrate slashing at the enemy’s arm or wrist, generally an easier target than other parts of the body; a deep slash will cause sufficient blood loss to disorient the enemy.  Figures C & D illustrate the two best methods of eliminating a sentry:  deep thrusts to the carotid (Fig. C) and subclavian (Fig. D) arteries.  This was a gruesome business, and Commandos had to be thoroughly trained to overcome any squeamishness.

The design was modified for a third time, again to increase production. The blades were sharpened by machine, not hand; the entire knife was given a black finish. The biggest difference was with the grips. They were no longer made from brass, which was a vital war material, particularly for making ammunition casings; instead, the grips were die cast out of a zinc alloy. These new grips were cast with a ribbed design, eliminating the need for checkering.

As time went on, the F-S knife was issued to other elite units, including Airborne Forces and the Special Air Service. A number of the Commando units incorporated the dagger’s distinctive shape into their insignia.

The Fairbairn Sykes knife, often called a “Commando dagger”, became nearly as well-recognized by the civilian populace as the Spitfire fighter. It was a symbol of defiance, of fighting spirit, of taking the war to the enemy by any means necessary.

Despite the magnificence of the weapon, there were issues. Unlike the American Ka-Bar knife, the Fairbairn Sykes was only intended for fighting, and not to be used as a multiple-purpose tool. The slender, graceful blade was rather delicate, and a number of soldiers managed to break the tip off of theirs by opening tinned rations or otherwise abusing their knives.

FS Knife Cooper 2

FS Knife Cooper

The author’s Fairbairn Sykes knife, sheathed and unsheathed.  While this knife is of  postwar manufacture, it follows the third wartime pattern.  The cross-guard is marked “R. Cooper, Sheffield, England”.

There were other issues, as well, such as finding an effective method of carrying the knife. Each F-S knife came with a leather sheath. The sheaths did not provide a tight fit, so a retaining strap that closed with a snap or press-stud was added. This strap was soon replaced by an elastic band; unfortunately, the elastic wore out quickly, and many knives were lost.

The sheaths came with four tabs, which were intended to be sewn onto the leg of the battledress trousers. However, early Commandos soon cut the sheath back off the trousers the first time they had to do laundry, and some soldiers even removed the tabs from the sheaths entirely.

Paratroopers were issued with special trousers with an oversized thigh pocket for carrying weapons or equipment. These Trousers, Parachutists’, also included a long, narrow pocket behind the outside seam of the right leg; this special pocket was intended for the F-S knife. The knife was entirely encompassed by this pocket to prevent it falling out during a parachute jump. However, it was difficult to quickly draw the knife in a fight, and the F-S knife was too delicate to cut oneself out of a parachute harness if needed. Additionally, early paratroopers complained that the sheathed knife dug into the knee when climbing the rough terrain found in Tunisia.

There were two methods of carrying the knife that worked well. One was to obtain an extra bayonet frog to suspend the knife from the normal webbing equipment. The other version was to sew a pair of straps to the outside of the trouser leg to hold the knife in place. Since the early battledress trousers came with tightening tabs at the ankle, it appears these tabs were simply relocated to the thigh.

2 Para Officers Tunisia

Officers of 2nd Parachute Battalion in Tunisia, December 1942:  Capt. R. Stark, Lt. J. Brayley, and Maj. R. Ashford.  Ashford was killed only a few days after this photo was taken.

2 Para Officers Tunisia Closeup

Detail of Maj. Ashford.  Note the method of carrying the F-S knife on the left thigh.  The cloth tabs are most likely tightening tabs from the ankles that have been relocated to hold the knife.

The Fairbairn Sykes knife is still being made today. In 2005, Wilkinson Sword discontinued making them and sold their tooling to, rather ironically, a German company. Other Sheffield knifemakers still make them, and inexpensive copies are also made in India and Pakistan. Original wartime knives, however, are highly sought after by collectors, and are not cheap.

Personally, I have been fascinated by the Fairbairn Sykes knife since I was a teenager, even before I had any particular interest in World War II. I read articles in encyclopedias and knife collecting magazines because Ian Fleming described James Bond as using a “commando dagger”, and I wanted to learn what that meant. During and after college, my historical focus was on the Middle Ages, but I have always had an interest in both firearms and edged weapons used throughout history. One of the first birthday presents I received from my wife was a modern copy of the Fairbairn Sykes knife, made by R. Cooper of Sheffield. Like the originals, the sheath is quite loose, and the elastic retaining strap is weak; I have never carried my knife at a reenactment because I have been deeply concerned about possibly losing something of tremendous sentimental value.

Despite the knife’s light weight, the grip feels substantial in the hand. The balance and grace are exquisite. Fairbairn recommended handling the knife as often as possible and practicing making slashing attacks; these movements come quite easily because the weight is in the grip.

The Fairbairn Sykes fighting knife is a magnificent weapon. It should not be a surprise that it became such a strong representation of Britain’s defiance against the Nazi menace, and is still an iconic symbol of the war.


Chappell, Mike
Army Commandos 1940 – 1945
Osprey Publishing, 1996

Cherry, Niall
Tunisian Tales:  The 1st Parachute Brigade in North Africa 1942 – 43
Helion & Company Ltd., 2011

Fairbairn, W.E.
All-In Fighting
(Published in the United States as Get Tough)
Reprinted by The Naval & Military Press, Ltd.

Thompson, Leroy
Fairbairn-Sykes Commando Dagger
Osprey Publishing, 2011

“You Will Do Your Work on Water”: Hydration in the Field

You may talk o’ gin and beer
When you’re quartered safe out ‘ere,
An’ you’re sent to penny-fights an’ Aldershot it;
But when it comes to slaughter
You will do your work on water,
An’ you’ll lick the bloomin’ boots of ‘im that’s got it.

– Rudyard Kipling, Gunga Din

The human body needs to be kept hydrated; a person can function longer without food than without water.  Therefore, no military equipment would be complete without giving the soldier a method of carrying water.

The standard British water bottles used in both World Wars were very similar; the Mark VI version issued with the 1908 pattern webbing equipment was replaced by the Mark VII, issued with the 1937 pattern equipment.  Both were made of enameled steel with a wool cover, with a stopper made of cork which was attached to the bottle with a short length of cord.  Each version held two Imperial pints of water, or 40 ounces.

Webbing Detail

The British Mark VII water bottle in its webbing carrier, attached to the 1937 pattern equipment.  Photo by the author of items in his collection.

When the 1937 pattern equipment was adopted, the original intent was that the water bottle would be carried in the haversack, or “small pack” as it was commonly called.  However, a webbing carrier was also developed; it could attach to the ends of the braces and hang below the waistbelt.  Officially, use of the webbing carrier was not the preferred method.  In actual practice, however, more equipment was carried in the small pack than the designers had intended, and the troops were forced to use the carrier simply to make room.  Because of the inherent difficulties in resupplying Airborne troops, they typically carried two water bottles:  one suspended on the carrier and a second inside the small pack.

The original water bottle carrier was made of webbing straps.  A later version consisted of a webbing sleeve; while this version used more material, it was easier to manufacture and saved labor costs.  The earlier type was often called the “skeleton” carrier, and the later type the “envelope” carrier.  Some modern militaria vendors have tried to assert that the envelope version was only issued to Airborne troops, implying somehow that it was more rare or specialized, and therefore more desirable to collectors; that is completely untrue and easily disproven.

Three Carriers

Three water bottles with carriers.  The top right is the original version, sometimes called the “skeleton” carrier.  The other two are examples of the later “envelope” version.  Note the brass buckles for attaching to the brace-ends of the webbing equipment.

The envelope carrier has a web strap at the bottom to support the weight of the water bottle, but is open at the top.  The skeleton carrier has a retaining strap that is closed with a large snap or press-stud; some Indian-made versions closed with a buckle.  The intent was obviously that the water bottle would simply be lifted out, with the carrier remaining attached to the rest of the webbing.  However, I have found at living history events that this is easier said than done.  Over the years, I have used several different carriers, of both types, and all of them have been very tight.  Getting to the water bottle has often required significant effort, or assistance from a friend.  Between events, some of my friends have experimented with soaking the carrier in hot water and stretching; the most successful method involves placing wooden shims between the bottle and the wet carrier, then allowing it to dry.  I assumed that the carriers had all somehow shrunk while sitting in a warehouse for the last several decades; surely they could not have been so difficult to work with during wartime.

As I have mentioned in previous articles, one of my favorite authors is George MacDonald Fraser.  His book, Quartered Safe Out Here, is an extraordinary memoir of his service in Burma, fighting the Japanese as part of Slim’s 14th Army.  Fraser’s title was inspired by Kipling; I thought I would follow suit with this article.  There is a remarkable segment in Fraser’s book dealing with the water bottle and its carrier.  It is a somewhat lengthy and colorful narrative, full of slang and foul language; I will summarize rather than reprint it here.  A significant battle was going on, but Fraser’s section was on the flank and had not encountered the enemy.  It was a hot day, and one of the other soldiers found himself very thirsty and naturally wanted a drink.  He was the largest member of the section, and had a nickname that reflected his size.  He asked one of his section-mates to borrow his water bottle, as he could not easily get to his own.  His mate refused, but countered that he would help the first man with his own bottle.  What is significant in this exchange is the fact that the second soldier did not offer to pull the first man’s bottle out of its carrier; instead, he offered to unbuckle his comrade’s carrier from the rest of the webbing.  This exchange was astonishing when I first read it; my assumption that the carrier must have been easier to use in wartime was shattered.  The narrative continues with the troops finding a local well, using their slouch hats attached to rifle slings to bring up water, and adding purification tablets; all that effort was still apparently easier than accessing the water bottle.  It was at that point that the section took fire from the enemy, and Fraser ended up down the well.

This story of unbuckling the water bottle carrier from the brace-ends must not have been an isolated incident, and I have been trying to find other examples.  While I have not found any other narratives, I did find a rather remarkable photograph showing this method.  The picture shows troops from 1st Airborne Division during Operation Market Garden, and was taken near Divisional Headquarters in Oosterbeek.  The photo shows two Airborne soldiers in a slit trench; one is in the act of drinking water, with the water bottle very clearly still in the skeleton carrier.

Water Bottle Market Garden IWM

Operation Market Garden, September 1944.  The man on the left drinking from his water bottle has clearly detached the webbing carrier from the rest of his equipment.  Photo from the Imperial War Museum.

In another part of his memoir, Fraser describes being issued with a canvas water bag for certain patrols.  This water bag was a clever item; it had to be soaked in water prior to use, which would cause the fabric’s fibers to swell and, somewhat counter-intuitively, make the bag water-tight.  This item was called a “chaugle”, derived from the Urdu, but the troops often called it a “chaggle”.  I have only seen references to its use in the Far East, despite its obvious superiority to the enameled water bottle.

Providing clean water to the troops was a logistics challenge even in the best of conditions.  In the deserts of North Africa, fresh water had to be trucked out to the troops on a constant basis; it had to be chlorinated to kill any bacteria and prevent algae from forming during transport.  Even in Northern Europe, where troops could fill their water bottles from the many rivers and streams, it had to be assumed the water was contaminated.  In Fraser’s narrative, he referenced the use of water purification tablets.  These were universally issued regardless of theater, for use when the men had to obtain their own water.  The “sterilizing outfit” was issued as a small tin; inside were two glass bottles.  One bottle contained the actual purification tablets; however, these tablets gave the water an unpleasant flavor that was supposed to be neutralized by the tablets in the second bottle.  I have one of the tins in my collection, but not the glass bottles.  One of each of the tablets was to be dissolved in the water to be treated; shaking the water bottle was supposed to speed up the mixing of the contents.  In Fraser’s story, the soldiers argued whether chewing the pills prior to drinking the well-water would do any good.

sterlizing outfit

The sterilizing outfit:  the two glass bottles go inside the tin.  The “thio” tablets were supposed to counteract the unpleasant taste caused by the sterilizing tablets.  From the collection of the Imperial War Museum.

I feel rather relieved that my personal struggles using the water bottle at living history events seems to be an accurate reflection on historical precedent.  I have occasionally seen fellow reenactors hide modern plastic water bottles inside their basic pouches, but I consider that cheating and bad form.

Sterilizing - Directions

Instructions printed inside the lid of the sterilizing outfit tin.  Author’s collection; I only have the tin without the contents.

A note on terminology:  to the British, the item that held water was called a “water bottle”, while the American term for such an item was “canteen”.  In British usage, a canteen was a shop, restaurant, and social club specifically for service members.  As an American who reenacts as British, I believe it is important to use the correct terminology.


The Pattern 1937 Web Equipment (1939)
His Majesty’s Stationary Office

Brayley, Martin J.
British Web Equipment of the Two World Wars
Europa Militaria:  The Crowood Press Ltd., 2005

Chappell, Mike
British Infantry Equipments 1908 – 80
Osprey Publishing, 1980

Fraser, George MacDonald
Quartered Safe Out Here
First published by Harvill, 1993, republished by Harper Collins, 2000

Kipling, Rudyard
Barrack-Room Ballads
Signet Classics, The Penguin Group, 2003
Originally published 1890

Boil Them Out and Pull Them Through: Rifle Cleaning

I recently re-watched a favorite episode of “Dad’s Army”, the classic comedy about the Home Guard.  This particular episode had a sequence that stood out to me.  The men return from a long nighttime patrol; they are cold and tired, but excitedly report they had fired at an enemy airplane.  Their officer announces he already has the kettle on, and the men’s spirits are raised in expectation of a hot cup of tea.  Their hopes are then dashed when the officer says the first kettle is for cleaning the rifles; once that task is done, they may have their tea.  The men clean their rifles, as ordered; not only are they still cold and tired, they are sullen and resentful.

I always disagreed with that approach.  I felt that a quick cup of tea would give the men’s spirits and energy a lift; not only would they clean their rifles more cheerfully, they would likely do a more effective job of it.

But this article is not about man management.  What also struck me about this sequence was that it reminded me of the first time I heard the phrase, “boil them out and pull them through”.

Oiler & Pull-Through

The Number 4 rifle with the oiler, pull-through and a 4×2 piece of flannelette removed from the butt-trap.  The sling, bolt and magazine are to be removed prior to cleaning.  All photos in this article are by the author.

I have been a firearms enthusiast even longer than I have been a reenactor.  As much as I love British history, I am grateful to live in a nation that still allows private firearms ownership.  I learned to clean my rifles with a cleaning rod with various attachments, as well as patches, brushes, and solvents.  I was taught to keep my weapons dry and well-oiled to prevent rust.  The idea of deliberately pouring water through a rifle was completely shocking when I first heard of it.

Most military ammunition, at least until the 1950’s, was made with primers that create a corrosive residue when fired.  Rather, these chemical salts themselves are fairly inert, but form an acid when mixed with water.  The salts dissolve so easily that humid air can form enough of the caustic substance to damage a rifle barrel; perhaps that Home Guard officer was right.  However, large amounts of water, especially when hot, will completely dissolve the residue and wash it away.  Therefore, standard British military procedure after firing a rifle, whether in action or simply on the range, was to pour boiling water through it.  The official training manual recommended using 5 to 6 pints of water; it also stated that using cold water was better than not cleaning the rifle at all.  There was even a funnel designed specifically to help guide the boiling water into the bore.  The barrel was then thoroughly dried and oiled to prevent rust.

Most British troops were not issued cleaning rods.  Normal cleaning was done with a “pull-through”, a length of cord with a loop at one end and a metal weight on the other.  A piece of soft cloth, called “flannelette”, was put into the loop of the pull-through.  The flannelette was manufactured as a four-inch-wide strip that was issued in a long roll; the cloth was marked with a line every two inches indicating where it was to be cut.  The individual pieces were then often referred to as “four by two”, and each soldier was issued with several pieces.

4x2 Flannelette 1

Flannelette, with one four by two piece removed from the rest of the sheet.

Each rifle was issued with a pull-through and a small oil bottle; these items were stored inside the rifle’s butt-trap.  That way, the pull-through and oiler were always with the rifle, and cleaning could be done in the field nearly as easily as in barracks.  The oil bottle was originally made of brass; during World War II the oiler was made in “Bakelite”, an early form of plastic, to save precious brass for ammunition.

Oiler 2

Bakelite oil bottle.  Note the “spoon” built into the lid.

The pull-through was also issued with one or two small squares of wire gauze.  To the modern eye, the wire gauze pieces look like they have been cut from a window screen.  The wire was fine enough that a gauze square could be wrapped around the pull-through to provide extra scouring ability.  However, excessive use of the wire gauze could cause barrel wear.  In peacetime, the gauze was only to be used when the rifle was exceptionally dirty, and only when authorized by the Armourer; a soldier could be put on a charge for using the gauze without authorization.  However, according to the 1942 training manual, gauze was to be kept on the pull-through in wartime.

Wire Gauze 1

A piece of wire gauze before attaching to the pull-through.

The sling, bolt and magazine were to be removed from the rifle prior to cleaning.  After “boiling out” the barrel, it would be “pulled through” with a flannelette until dry.  To do this, the rifle was held with the muzzle down and the pull-through’s weight fed into the breech until the weight appeared at the muzzle.  Then the butt was placed on the floor, the cord wrapped around the hand, and the flannelette pulled through the bore; this process was repeated until the barrel was dry.  Then a different flannelette was used, this time to apply oil to the barrel.

Feeding Pull Through

Pulling-through:  the weight is dropped down the bore.

The magazine, bolt, and the rest of the rifle would be carefully wiped down with an oiled cloth, which was often stored in the webbing entrenching tool carrier.  If necessary, the magazine could be disassembled by removing the spring and platform, but this was only to be done when very dirty.

It is worth noting that the 1942 Small Arms Training Pamphlet for the Rifle starts with cleaning and maintenance before moving on to aiming and firing.  The Pamphlet also has notes on the use of cover, and use of the rifle in strengthening exercises, such as holding the rifle in the firing position using only one arm.

Pulling Through 1

The flannelette is then pulled through until the barrel is dry.  The process is repeated with an oiled flannelette.

Old surplus .303 used to be fairly common, but is sadly becoming increasingly scarce.  Most modern gunpowder solvents should also effectively clean corrosive primer residue; but sometimes the old ways are the best ways, and I still boil out my rifle after firing surplus ammo.

Several years ago, I was at a gun store hoping to find some surplus .303.  I heard other customers raving about a new cleaning product called a “Bore Snake”.  I had to laugh; this revolutionary new product was just a fancy pull-through.


Small Arms Training, Volume I, Pamphlet No. 3:  Rifle (1942)
His Majesty’s Stationary Office

Gordon, David B.
Tommy: The Collector’s Historical Perspective to the British Soldier of the Second World War
Volume One: Uniforms, Weapons and Equipment of the Airborne Forces
Pictorial Histories Publishing Co., Inc., 1998

The Bren Light Machine Gun: Legendary Reliability

One of the most important and iconic weapons of World War II was the British Bren light machine gun.  The Bren’s distinctive top-mounted curved magazine made it easy to recognize by friend and foe alike.  Troops throughout the British Empire praised the Bren for its reliability.

burma 1945 - 2

A Bren gun position in Burma, 1945.  All photos in this article are from the Imperial War Museum.

During World War I, machine guns were used as defensive weapons, and were outstanding in that role; combined with barbed wire, they made it extremely difficult for the opposing force to advance.  Both sides used very similar machine guns as well as similar tactics, and a stalemate ensued.  Machine guns were belt-fed, mounted on heavy tripods, and fitted with a water-filled jacket to keep the barrel cool; with sufficient water and ammunition, a machine gun could fire almost indefinitely.  Because of their weight and bulk, they were not easily moved and therefore kept in emplaced positions.

The light machine gun appeared towards the end of the war in an effort to break the stalemate by giving more firepower to the advancing infantry.  These new weapons were air-cooled, portable, and typically magazine-fed.  Arguably the best light machine gun of the time was the Lewis gun; however, it was mechanically complex, required more advanced training than a rifle, and was somewhat unreliable.  However, it was vastly superior to the French Chauchat, which had a dreadful reputation for jamming; the American Browning Automatic Rifle (or “B.A.R.”), while more reliable, came out too late in the war to see much service.

In the 1930’s, the British Army’s Small Arms Committee began the search for a new light machine gun to replace the Lewis gun.  They tested a number of weapons, including the Danish Madsen and the French FM 24/29, which had replaced the despised Chauchat.  The American B.A.R. performed well in the trials and was an early favorite.  However, it had a significant flaw:  it had a fixed barrel, while the others had a detachable barrel.  After extensive firing, the gun needed to cool; continued firing would cause permanent damage.  The other light machine guns could have a spare barrel fitted, and then continue firing as before.  As the trials continued, a new favorite emerged:  the Czech Zb 26, made by the Brno arms factory.   The Czechs made updates to the design based on feedback during the trials; what started as the Zb 26 eventually became the Zb 30 and then the Zb 33.  The Brno designers called the final iteration the ZGB, which was adopted by the British government.

Late in the trials, the ZGB was given an endurance test.  The plan was to fire 150,000 rounds and see how many stoppages would ensue.  After about 146,000 rounds, the test was cut short because the gun was still firing as flawlessly as when it started, and the testers felt firing the last allocated rounds would simply be a waste of time and ammunition.

The original Zb series fired 7.92mm ammunition, the same round developed for the Mauser rifle.  Late in the trials, the ZGB design was converted to fire British .303 ammunition, and the plans were converted from metric to Imperial measurements.  A licensing agreement was signed allowing for the weapon to be built in Great Britain at the Royal Small Arms Factory at Enfield.  The gun was given a new name:  “Bren”, taken from “Brno” and “Enfield”.

The gun was officially adopted in 1935 and the first Bren was completed in 1937.  When the British Expeditionary Force (B.E.F.) was sent to France and Belgium in 1939, enough Brens were available to equip most units.  However, the gun was still new, and evidence suggests that not all units had been effectively trained in its use.  Additionally, when the B.E.F. was first sent to the continent, most of the men were still wearing their old service dress uniforms with the 1908 pattern webbing equipment, which gave no method of carrying Bren magazines.  Fortunately, most troops were re-equipped with the 1937 pattern webbing and battledress before the German invasion of France and the Low Countries in May of 1940; the new equipment had been designed around the Bren, with pouches large enough for the magazines.

After the Dunkirk evacuation, the Army conducted an inventory and found there were only about 2,300 Brens available.  While most soldiers returned from France with their rifles, many of the Brens had been abandoned or intentionally destroyed, along with heavier weapons, vehicles, and supply dumps.  If the weapon had not been so new, and the men more thoroughly trained in its use, it may not have been left behind in such numbers.

Near Tobruk 1941

Dug-in British troops near Tobruk, Libya, in 1941.  They were lucky to have a Bren; at this point, many troops were using the less-reliable Lewis gun.

As the war in North Africa intensified, there were insufficient Brens for the need, and stocks of old Lewis guns were brought out of storage.  Britain also ordered a number of B.A.R.’s from the United States; but by the time they arrived, Bren production had increased and most of the B.A.R.’s went to the Home Guard.  By late 1942, most units in the desert had been supplied with Brens.  Since the Bren was more reliable under desert conditions than most other machine guns, this gave the British an advantage.

Upon adoption, the Bren had been intended as a multiple-use weapon in order to replace both the Lewis light machine gun and the Vickers water-cooled gun.  A tripod was produced so that the Bren could be used in the sustained-fire role.  By adding an extra leg, the tripod could be reconfigured to use the Bren as an anti-aircraft (A.A.) weapon; if anything happened to the tripod extension, an S.M.L.E. rifle could be substituted.  A special A.A. sight could be clipped on the barrel, and an A.A. drum magazine was developed that could hold 100 rounds.

HomeGuard Bren 1941

England, 1941.  This photograph shows the Bren L.M.G. with its tripod in the anti-aircraft configuration.  This Mark I still has the rear grip.  Also note the steel box of magazines.

The Bren was also mounted on vehicles.  A brass-catching device, essentially a heavy canvas bag with steel mount, could be inserted into the ejection port.  Every vehicle with a Bren was supposed to be issued with the brass-catcher, but this did not always happen; crews of Dingo armored cars in particular were subject to having hot brass dumped on them.

Unfortunately, the Bren was not particularly successful as a multi-purpose gun.  Its slow rate of fire and magazine feed were not terribly effective for either the sustained fire role or as an anti-aircraft weapon.  The magazine feed was fine in open-topped vehicles, but very awkward in the cramped confines of a tank.  Eventually, the belt-fed Besa machine gun was adopted for use on tanks, and the old water-cooled Vickers gun was brought back into use for sustained fire in fixed positions.  The Bren was also replaced by dedicated anti-aircraft guns, including the 20mm Polsten and Oerlikon guns and the 40mm Bofors gun.

As an infantry weapon, however, the Bren was outstanding.  One Bren gun was issued to every eight-man section; its simple design made it easy to use.  While each section had a dedicated Bren gunner who was authorized to wear a specialist’s badge (either “LMG” or “BG”), all troops were trained on its use so they could take over in time of need.  The magazine feed meant that the ammunition was easily distributed throughout the section.  The Bren fired the same .303 round as the Lee-Enfield rifles; during lulls in the fighting, the riflemen would reload empty magazines from their bandoliers.

The Bren was extremely robust.  Its reliability was one of the main reasons it had been adopted, and the troops were very fond of it for that reason.  This reliability was helped by the sliding dust-covers over both the magazine well and the ejection port, designed to keep dirt and debris out of the mechanism.  Additionally, the gas system was adjustable; as cordite residue built up in the gun, a larger aperture in the gas regulator could be selected which would allow more gas to cycle through and work the action.

The Bren was also very accurate; in fact it was almost too accurate, and experienced gunners preferred using worn barrels to give a wider cone of suppressing fire.  The top-mounted magazine required that the sights be offset by about a half-inch; this was not enough to have an appreciable impact on accuracy, especially at longer ranges.    The Bren used an aperture rear sight and post front sight.  Mounted on the tripod, the Bren’s effective range was around 2000 yards; on just the integral bipod, it was effective to over 600 yards.

The standard magazine had been intended to hold 30 rounds; however, this tended to over-compress the spring and cause feeding issues, so standard practice was to load 28 rounds.  The magazine’s distinctive curved shape was required to accommodate rimmed .303 ammunition.  Care had to be taken when loading the magazines to avoid overlapping the rims; most stoppages were caused by poorly-filled magazines, not by any mechanical issues with the gun itself.  During trials, it was noted that the top-mounted magazine was faster and easier to change than guns with bottom-mounted magazines, particularly the B.A.R.  Additionally, the B.A.R.’s magazine only held 20 rounds, as a larger capacity would impede the use of low cover.

Perhaps the most important feature of the Bren was the ability to change its barrel quickly; no tools were needed for this process.  The magazine had to be removed and the magazine well’s dust cover closed.  Raising the barrel nut unlocked the barrel, which was then lifted away by the carry handle; the spare was then installed and the barrel nut pressed back down.  The barrel was changed after every 10 magazines during automatic fire, and a well-trained crew could do it in eight seconds.  The barrel’s muzzle spread out in a conical shape as a rudimentary flash hider; the cone allowed expanding gas to dissipate more quickly than a straight muzzle.

CleaningBren Normany1944

Normandy, 1944.  A Bren gunner has removed the barrel for cleaning.

The theoretical rate of fire was around 500 rounds per minute, but of course with magazine changes, the actual rate of fire was much lower, around 120 rounds per minute.  Bren gunners were trained to fire 4-5 round bursts in suppressing fire or in engaging an exposed enemy.  In the defense, gunners were taught to fire single rounds at suspected targets, not only to conserve ammunition, but also to try to disguise the nature of the gun and avoid becoming the enemy’s primary target.

The Germans used belt-fed air-cooled machine guns, namely the MG-34 and its successor, the MG-42.  These guns, particularly the MG-42, were noted for their high rate of fire.  They were extremely effective psychological weapons; troops confronted by these guns were terrified by the sound and easily suppressed.  But this rate of fire came at a cost.  The Germans went through a staggering amount of ammunition, all of which had to be carried by the infantrymen.  It generally took longer to reload a belt-fed gun than one that was magazine-fed.  The German guns also overheated much faster, and it was not as easy to change out their barrels; a thick felt pad was used to protect the soldiers’ hands while handling the hot barrel.  The Germans encountered times when the spare barrel needed to be changed before the original had sufficiently cooled.

The Bren could be operated by a single soldier, but was more effective when crewed by a gunner and an assistant (The Bren Number 1 and Bren Number 2).  The Number 1 carried the gun, three magazines (one in the gun, two in webbing pouches), and the spare parts wallet.  The Number 2 carried six magazines, two in his regular webbing equipment, and four in supplemental pouches.  He also carried the spare barrel in its dedicated webbing holdall.  Typically, both magazine changes and barrel changes were done by the Number 2.

All infantry tactics revolved around the Bren gun, as it was the section’s primary fire-producer.  Defensively, the Bren was put at the section’s flank in order to engage the attacking enemy with defilade fire.  While the rest of the section dug straight 2-man slit trenches, the Bren was placed at the apex of an angled trench, which gave better access for the Number 2 to change magazines and barrels.

In the attack, the section would break into two groups:  the Bren group consisted of the assistant section leader, the Bren Number 1 and Number 2; the section leader and the riflemen were the assault group.  The groups would then engage in fire-and-movement, one group providing covering fire while the other group advanced.  The goal was to get the Bren into a good position to engage the enemy and either destroy them or suppress them so the assault group could take the position.

The Bren was also an integral part of anti-tank tactics.  While the .303 round would not penetrate a tank’s armor, it could force the tank commander and any other crew to stay inside the turret, reducing their visibility and effectiveness.  Bren gunners were also taught to fire at a tank’s viewing ports and prisms; if this was not possible, they were to engage any supporting infantry.  All of these tactics made it easier for an anti-tank team to move up on the vehicle’s flank with a Boyes anti-tank rifle or a PIAT (projector, infantry, anti-tank).

The Bren had an attached bipod, which could be folded up when mounted on a vehicle or tripod, or to allow the gunner to get into deeper cover.  It also had a sling; the gun could be carried with the sling over the shoulder taking most of the weight, and the left hand steadying the gun.  This way, the gun could be fired from the hip while on the move.  The carry handle could be rotated into the “assault position”, although it was more common to hold the gun under the folded-up bipod when firing from the hip.

The first Bren gun, the Mark I, had a wooden rear grip, very much like the carry handle, but mounted under the buttstock.  Bren gunners were trained to grasp the pistol grip with the right hand and the rear grip with the left; no allowance was made for firing the gun left-handed.  While there was little recoil because of the mass of the gun, it still needed to be stabilized during firing.  However, it was soon found that the rear grip did not provide enough stability and troops were instead taught to grasp the wrist of the stock, that is, the narrowest part.  This method provided the stability needed.  The rear grip was then eliminated in future versions of the Bren, and even removed from existing guns.

The Mark I had a dovetail slot cut into the receiver, or body, to accept an optical sight, intended for use when firing from the tripod in fixed positions.  However, very few of the optical sights were issued; in fact, many of the sights were mounted on rifles and issued to snipers.  The Mark I* receiver eliminated the dovetail.

The Mark I had an elevating wheel for its backsight, adjustable bipod legs, and the charging handle could be folded flat against the receiver after the gun had been cocked.  The Mark II had a simpler leaf-type backsight, non-adjusting bipod legs, and a simpler, non-folding charging handle; it also had a simpler carry handle.  These modifications were intended to increase manufacturing production, and it was estimated that the Mk II was nearly 25% more efficient to build than the Mk I.  Towards the end of the war, the Mark III and Mark IV were approved for production; these Brens had shorter barrels than the earlier designs, and were intended for use by the Airborne forces, or in the jungle.  However, the Marks III and IV came out too late to see much wartime service.

burma 1945

Troops on the march in Burma, 1945.  Note the Bren gunner with the weapon resting on his shoulder.

Originally, Bren gunners were trained to carry the gun by the carry handle.  However, “light machine gun” was a comparative term; it was only light compared to water-cooled machine guns.  The Bren Mark I weighed 23 pounds unloaded, well over double the Lee-Enfield rifle, and the Bren Mark II weighed slightly more.  Each full magazine weighed just short of three pounds.  When not in direct contact with the enemy, Bren gunners tended to march with the gun balanced on the shoulder, with a hand on the barrel to steady the gun.

The Bren was used throughout the British Empire.  Not only was it made at R.S.A.F. Enfield in England, it was also made by the John Inglis Company in Canada and the Lithgow arms factory in Australia.  The Indian Army began the war with the similar-appearing Vickers-Berthier; however, the gun was not sufficiently robust, and India adopted the Bren in 1942 and built them at the Ishapore factory.

RM Falklands

Royal Marines occupy a barn during the Falklands campaign, 1982.  The L4 L.M.G., in 7.62mm, faces the camera.

The Bren continued service after World War II; its reliability was again needed from the bitter cold of Korea to the jungles of Malaya.  When Britain adopted the NATO-standard 7.62mm cartridge in the late 1950’s, the Bren gun was converted to the new round and redesignated as the L4 L.M.G.  While new barrels and magazines were made, existing guns were rechambered to 7.62mm.  The new magazines were straight, not curved, and the muzzle cone was replaced with a “birdcage”-style flash hider.  If needed, the L4 was able to use the same magazine as the L1A1 self-loading rifle.  The L4 served nearly to the end of the 20th Century; its last use was in the 1991 Gulf War.


Small Arms Training, Volume I, Pamphlet No. 4:  Light Machine Gun (1939)
Reprinted with Amendments, 1942
His Majesty’s Stationary Office

Infantry Training – Volume I:  Infantry Platoon Weapons
Pamphlet No. 6:  Light Machine Gun and Section Handling (1955)
Her Majesty’s Stationary Office

Barlow, J. A., Lt. Colonel
Johnson, R. E. W., Major
Small Arms Manual
Wyman & Sons, Ltd., for John Murray, 1942

Grant, Neil
The Bren Gun
Osprey Publishing Ltd., 2013

Skennerton, Ian
.303-in. Bren Light Machine Gun
Ian Skennerton Publishing, 1994

Weeks, John
World War II Small Arms
Chartwell Books, Inc.

Gulf War

The last use of the classic British L.M.G.  This young soldier mans his L4 in the Persian Gulf in 1990, during the build-up to the liberation of Kuwait.

The Sten Machine Carbine: The Gun that Almost Never Was

This article was originally written for “The Front”, the newsletter of the California Historical Group, and is reprinted here by permission of the editors.

One of the most mass-produced and widely-used firearms of the Second World War was the British Sten Machine Carbine. Ironically, it was almost never created, and only came about in direct response to enemy action.

Towards the end of the First World War, new weapons and tactics were developed in an attempt to break the stalemate of the Western Front’s trench warfare. One of the new concepts was a “trench sweeper”, a light, compact gun capable of automatic fire; pistol-caliber ammunition was used to reduce the weight and bulk of the weapon.  While several nations experimented with such guns, the first to be successful was Germany, with the Maschinenpistole (MP) 18, chambered for the same ammunition as the 9mm Luger.  This weapon was issued to specially-trained Sturmtruppen (“assault troops”) who were intended to infiltrate into enemy trenches and cause as much havoc as possible.

Interest in this new class of weapon continued in the 1920’s and 30’s. In the United States, General John Thompson designed his famous .45 caliber weapon in 1921, with improvements made in 1928.  Unfortunately, the “Tommy Gun” was soon associated with the gangland violence of the American Prohibition era.

Arnhem 1944 2 Para with Mk V

Battle of Arnhem, September 1944.  British Paratroopers with a German prisoner; three of the men carry the Sten Mark V.

Thompson was the first to coin the term “submachine gun” to describe not only his weapon, but the entire class of pistol-caliber automatic firearms; this term is commonly used today. Many countries developed their own submachine guns, such as the Finnish Suomi, although the Europeans tended to continue calling them machine pistols.  The Germans made improvements on the MP 18, which became the MP 28.  The British used the term “machine carbine” for the new weapons – but the military establishment had no interest in them whatsoever.

The British conducted trials on the Thompson, Suomi, and many others. Detailed test results were carefully written and submitted to the War Office for evaluation.  However, these reports were dismissed over concerns for the short effective range – completely ignoring the fact these were specifically intended as short-range weapons.  The War Office wrote that proper soldiers should be equipped with proper rifles, and reiterated the expectation that a British soldier should be able to hit a target at 600 yards, while machine carbines were only effective to around 100 yards.  The War Office concluded that the British Army was not interested in “gangster guns”.

In September 1939, Germany shocked the world, not only with its invasion of Poland, but also with the Blitzkrieg tactics used in doing so.  Many German troops carried the MP 38, the first submachine gun with a folding stock.

The United Kingdom responded by declaring war on Germany and sending the British Expeditionary Force to reinforce their allies in France and Belgium. Shortly after arrival, the BEF submitted an urgent request for machine carbines; the War Office acquiesced and ordered 300,000 Thompsons from the United States.

It was hoped that the US, still neutral at this point, would be able to quickly supply the Thompsons. However, it was a slow and complex gun to produce, and expensive as well.  Additionally, the German Navy refused to recognize American neutrality and targeted supply ships bound for the UK; many of the desired Thompsons ended up at the bottom of the Atlantic.

In May, 1940, Germany invaded France and the Low Countries, once again using their Blitzkrieg tactics.  One of the most spectacular components of the Blitzkrieg was the use of airborne troops, particularly in the assault on the massive fortifications at Eben Emael in Belgium.

The BEF was forced to evacuate back to England from the port of Dunkirk, and a number of French soldiers managed to escape with them. Over time, refugees from across occupied Europe made their way to Britain.  In addition to having to prepare for a possible enemy invasion, the British Government determined to arm and equip the foreign armies in exile.  They also decided to encourage and support any resistance organizations that developed on the enemy-controlled European continent.  Unfortunately, Britain’s heavy industry was already operating at maximum capacity.

The War Office finally realized the need for Britain to produce its own version of the machine carbine. Fortunately, some enemy weapons had been captured, and these were carefully studied by the staff at the Royal Small Arms Factory at Enfield.  The first British-made machine carbine was the Lanchester, which was just a copy of the German MP 28.  About 80,000 of these were built and issued to the Royal Navy for the defense of port facilities.

The Lanchester was an effective weapon, but like the Thompson, based on old technology and slow to manufacture. The designers at RSAF Enfield were determined to create a new weapon, one that was easier to produce.  They studied captured examples of the MP 38 and quickly found that much of the weapon was made from stamped sheet metal, with only certain components made from machined steel.  This was the inspiration they needed, and they designed the Sten Mark I.  “Sten” was a contraction for Shepherd and Turpin, the primary designers, and Enfield, the Royal Small Arms Factory.  The bolt and barrel were machined, but the bulk of the weapon was made from stampings and pressings, spot-welded in place.  It operated on a simple blowback principle, had a fixed firing pin, and like the Lanchester, the magazine was copied from the MP 28.

The first Sten, the Mark I, began production in January 1941 and was approved for issue to British troops in March. However, that same month, RSAF Enfield received a request from the newly-created Airborne Forces to modify the Sten for their use.  Prime Minister Churchill had called for the creation of the British Airborne, inspired by the enemy’s actions at Eben Emael.  The Sten’s design was revised to accommodate the Airborne, but also to make manufacture even simpler; this was the Sten Mark II.  As the Mark II was introduced so soon after the Mark I, few Mark I’s were issued to the troops.

Early Para with Mk II

British paratrooper, 1942.  Notice the Sten Mark II, with the stock removed, carried under the parachute harness.

The Mark II had a detachable barrel and stock, and the magazine housing could rotate 90 degrees which acted as a dust cover for the ejection port. Early paratroopers jumped with a disassembled Mark II strapped to their chest under the parachute harness.  In the early days of parachuting, rifles had to be dropped in containers; being able to jump with a gun on the person was invaluable.  These design aspects also made the Mark II easier to air drop into occupied Europe, and be concealed by the Resistance units.  As it was chambered in 9mm, it fired the same ammunition as the German MP 38 and the later MP 40, and the magazines were interchangeable, making it easy to use captured enemy supplies.

The Mark II was the most numerous of all the Sten variants, with over 2.5 million made. Most of the components were contracted out to hundreds of vendors, with final assembly performed at the Royal Ordinance Factories at Maltby and Fazakerley.  Traditional gunmakers, such as Birmingham Small Arms and Webley & Scott, made the barrels and bolts.  But the other components, made of simple tubes and stampings, were made across the UK in workshops and garages, as opposed to large factories, allowing light industry to provide valuable help to the war effort.

The Mark III, first issued in 1943, was the simplest of all the Stens. It had even fewer parts and took even less production time than the others, but it also suffered from quality issues.  It therefore never replaced the Mark II.  The Mark III had a fixed barrel and an even more rudimentary front sight than the Mark II.

Tommies and Prisoners Normandy

British troops in Normandy, July 1944, with German prisoners.  The two men at the right carry the Mark III version of the Sten carbine.  Photo courtesy the Imperial War Museum.

By 1944, the potential for Germany to invade Britain was well and truly over, and the Allies were preparing their own invasion of the European mainland. Production efficiency could be relaxed in favor of build quality, and the Mark V Sten was created.  This had a wooden stock, as well as a wooden pistol grip and fore grip, very much like the Thompson.  The foresight assembly was taken from the Number 4 rifle; it also used the same bayonet lugs as the Number 4, allowing the spike bayonet to be fitted.  The entire production run of Mark V’s was issued to the Airborne Forces.  Like the earlier Stens, the stock could be removed, making it easier to jump with the weapon.

The Mark IV and Mark VI never left the prototype phase. However, about 4.5 million Stens of all marks were made.  While most were built in the UK, the Mark II was also built in Canada and New Zealand.  The Sten was issued to British troops and men from across the Commonwealth, as well as the many resistance groups.  Despite popular myth, the British never provided the Sten’s design to the Resistance; however, some of the more enterprising of the partisans were able to reverse engineer the simple design and manufacture components, and sometimes even complete guns.

The Sten’s crude appearance led British troops to call it the “Plumber’s Nightmare”, the “Woolworth Gun” and the “Stench Gun”. However, despite its crudeness, it was effective and easy to learn – so long as care was taken.  It was also lighter and more compact than a rifle, making it ideal for specialist troops such as signalers.

Primary consideration in the Sten’s design was for ease of manufacture; use of the weapon was secondary, and there were issues. The selector switch only had two positions, one for single shots and one for automatic fire; there was not a safety setting or any other safety switch.  Instead, there was a notch for the charging handle intended to keep the bolt from going into battery.  Dropping the weapon or otherwise giving it a strong jolt often allowed the bolt to move enough for the charging handle to leave the safety slot, which often resulted in an accidental discharge or “slam fire”.  The magazine lips were prone to damage, which caused feeding problems; this was exacerbated by holding the side-mounted magazine while firing.  It was intended that the gun be held by the barrel shroud, but care had to be taken not to let the small finger slip into the ejection port and get injured by the movement of the bolt*.  Many Mark III’s had a small tab welded next to the ejection port to prevent this issue.

Partisan with Mk II Paris 1944

The liberation of Paris, August 1944.  A French partisan with a Sten Mk II.

If the Sten was handled carefully, it was an effective weapon at short ranges. British units would often exchange a number of rifles for Stens when close combat was likely, such as in towns or the hedgerow country of Normandy.  While the side-mounted magazine was simply copied from the MP 28, it allowed one to use the Sten in deeper cover than similar weapons with a bottom-mounted magazine.

In many respects, the Sten was the perfect gun for its time. The simplest version, the Mark III, could be manufactured in only six “man hours”, and fifteen could be produced for the cost of one Thompson.  Most of the components were made by small shops, allowing heavy industry to concentrate on other weapons and materiel.  The Sten’s light weight and simplicity made it ideal for supplying to the Partisans.  The fact that 4.5 million were made, and that they were used all over the world, is especially remarkable considering the British military establishment never wanted such a weapon in the first place.

*The author has a deactivated Sten Mark II for public displays. Once, at an air show, a Canadian veteran saw the author’s Sten and proudly showed off his still-mangled little finger.


Small Arms Training:  Volume I, Pamphlet No. 22:  Sten Machine Carbine (1942)
His Majesty’s Stationary Office

Skennerton, Ian
9mm Sten Machine Carbine Marks 1, 1*, 2 & 3
Ian Skennerton Publishing, 1999

Thompson, Leroy
The Sten Gun
Osprey Publishing, 2012

Weeks, John
World War II Small Arms
Chartwell Books, Inc.

Sten Display

Author’s deactivated Sten Mk II on display at an air show.   The grenades are also inert.

The Lee-Enfield Rifles in the 20th Century

The Lee-Enfield family of rifles first appeared at the end of the Victorian era, and served the British Forces well into the Cold War. This was a remarkable service length, and these were remarkable firearms.


Lee-Enfield Rifles.  From top to bottom:  No. 1 Mk III* (Ishapore, India, 1945); No. 1 Mk III* (Lithgow, Australia, 1945); No. 4 Mk I* (Long Branch, Canada, 1943); No. 4 Mk II (Royal Ordnance Factory Fazakerley, England, 1949).  All photos in this article are by the author.

The first rifle to use James Paris Lee’s bolt design was termed the Lee-Metford; it replaced the single-shot Martini-Henry and was the first British service rifle to hold multiple rounds. It was also the first weapon chambered in .303 ammunition, which was first developed using black powder.  The Lee-Metford had an eight-shot magazine, and was soon replaced by the Lee-Enfield Mark I, with a 10-round magazine.  However, the change in name was to indicate a new method of rifling developed at the Royal Small Arms Factory at Enfield.  Thus, the Lee-Enfield was born.

With the adoption of smokeless powder (cordite in this case), it was found that a shorter barrel length would still produce the range and accuracy needed. The Short Magazine Lee-Enfield (S.M.L.E.) was adopted in 1902.  The term “Short” referred to the overall length of the rifle compared to its predecessors; weapons of a similar length had previously been considered carbines and issued to cavalry.  Improvements were made on the design, including the addition of a charger bridge to aid in loading, resulting in the S.M.L.E. Mark III, adopted in 1907.  This was the rifle that the British Tommy took to Flanders in 1914.  Soldiers often pronounced S.M.L.E. as “Smelly”.


.303 training ammunition.  Note the lack of primer.  The red-painted indentations make it easy to identify these as inert training rounds by both sight and feel.  These examples are Canadian-marked and dated from the 1920’s.

Prior to the Great War, infantry were expected to withstand cavalry charges with their bayonets. With the adoption of the shorter rifle, it was felt necessary to make up for the reduced reach by extending the length of the bayonet.  The S.M.L.E. Mark III was issued with the 1907 pattern bladed bayonet, sometimes called a “sword bayonet” because of its size.

The S.M.L.E. Mark III also included long-range volley sights and a magazine cut-off. The cut-off was a sliding cover over the magazine; the intent was that the soldier would load and fire individual rounds, saving the ammunition in the magazine for when rapid fire was needed.  In 1916, the cut-off and volley sights were determined superfluous, and these items were deleted from the Mark III* (the asterisk is typically pronounced as “star”).

The S.M.L.E. Mark III and Mark III* were outstanding rifles. The Lee bolt design was faster and smoother to operate than any of its rivals, giving the British soldier a faster rate of fire than his enemies (or his Allies).  The Enfield also had twice the magazine capacity of the other rifles of the period, and its shorter size made it easier to maneuver in the close confines of trench warfare.


Loading the No. 1 Mk III* with training ammunition.  Note the use of the charger bridge to assist in loading.

British troops were trained in the “mad minute”, to fire and reload as quickly as possible in a 60-second period. The minimum requirement was 15 rounds, with all hitting the target at 300 yards.  Well-trained soldiers could fire 20 – 30 rounds, with the documented record being 36 aimed shots in a minute.  When German troops first encountered the British at the outbreak of the Great War, they believed they were up against machine guns, not infantrymen with rifles.

The S.M.L.E. was slightly less accurate than the enemy Mauser, but it was accurate enough for the battlefield. The British soldier was expected to hit a man-sized target at 600 yards.

After the horrors of the Great War, Britain was reluctant to invest in new weaponry. Several improvements and prototypes were developed in the 1920’s and 30’s, but were not adopted.  However, the naming system was revised in 1926, and the S.M.L.E. was renamed the Number 1 Rifle, with both Mark III and Mark III*’s in service (official abbreviations were No. 1 Mk III and No. 1 Mk III*).  Finally, in 1939, the Number 4 rifle was approved for production.


No. 1 Mk III* (top) and No. 4 Mk I* (bottom).  The top rifle is the older design; ironically, in this pair it is of newer manufacture – India never produced the No. 4.

The No. 1 rifle had been largely hand-made. The No. 4 Mk I was designed to incorporate new manufacturing methods to make mass-production easier.  It also included a number of improvements.  The bolt was reduced in weight, making it even faster to operate than its predecessor.  The charger bridge was made as part of the receiver, rather than a separate piece, making it stronger.  The sights were also improved.  The No. 1 used a blade front sight and “V-notch” backsight, adjustable for range; it was good for precision shooting, but difficult for rapidly-moving targets.  The No. 4 was given a ring-type backsight which gave much faster target acquisition.  The backsight was of the “flip” type configuration, meaning it could be rotated from a short-range combat sight to a more precise long-range sight; the earlier versions were adjustable.  The new rifle was the same length as its predecessor, and their weights were similar.  Visually, the biggest difference was the short length of exposed barrel on the No. 4, as opposed to the No. 1’s nosecap mounted flush to the muzzle.

The Great War had seen the demise of traditional horse cavalry. Studies of the use of the bayonet between the wars indicated that the long “sword bayonet” was no longer needed.  In an effort to reduce the use of steel and to maximize manufacturing efficiency, the No. 4 Mk I was issued with a simple spike bayonet.  The troops often referred to the new bayonet as a “pig-sticker”.


Bayonets.  The No. 1 Mk III* fitted with the 1907 pattern “sword bayonet” and the No. 4 Mk I* fitted with the “pig sticker” spike bayonet.

Although officially adopted in time for the outbreak of World War II, the No. 4 Mk I did not see immediate service. It took time for the new rifle to enter production, and the first examples did not reach the troops until 1942.  The British Expeditionary Force that reinforced France and Belgium in 1939 carried the same rifle as their fathers had before them.

Priority of issue for the No. 4 Mk I was for troops on Home Service, initially defending Britain against possible invasion, but then transitioning to the return to occupied Europe. When 21st Army Group arrived in Normandy, they were using the No. 4 rifle exclusively. In contrast, when 8th Army was in North Africa, they continued to soldier on with the old No. 1 rifle, and only received some No. 4’s as replacements late in the war as they fought in Italy.  Similarly, 14th Army in Burma largely fought with the No. 1, with the No. 4 arriving late in the war, but never replacing the older rifle.  Shorter versions of the blade bayonet were made in India for the No. 1 rifle, intended for use in the jungle.

During WWII, the No. 4 Mk I* was authorized with a revised bolt release. A number of minor modifications were also adopted during the course of the war, but not considered significant to renumber the rifle or create a new Mark.  These included simplified sights, barrel bands, and other components, all of which were intended to ease production.


No. 4 Mk I* with the Mk III backsight configured for long-range firing

After the War, the No. 4 Mk II was adopted; this was essentially the same rifle, but with a different method of attaching the trigger. Additionally, a number of wartime rifles were retrofitted with the new trigger, and were labeled the Number 4 Mark I/II.  Many of these retrofits were also refurbished and provided the original Mark I backsight, the most precise of the different versions.  The wartime spike bayonet was replaced with a proper blade.

The Number 5 rifle was adopted very late in WWII; it was intended for use in the Far East and was often called the “jungle carbine”, although this name was never officially used. The No. 5 was essentially a shortened version of the No. 4, using the same bolt and sights, and fitted with a rubber recoil pad and an anti-flash cone at the muzzle.  Because it fired standard .303 ammunition, recoil was ferocious despite the rubber pad; it also suffered accuracy problems.  The No. 5 only saw limited production and very few saw front-line service.

The Lee-Enfield continued service after WWII, including the Korean conflict. Many overseas garrisons still had their old stocks of No. 1, Mk III’s, but most troops carried No. 4’s, either the Mk I or Mk II.  Both the No. 1 and the No. 4 had been manufactured by Commonwealth nations as well as Britain; in fact, India and Australia never did adopt the No. 4, preferring the older design.

A number of .22 caliber Lee-Enfield variants were adopted for training purposes.   There were also sniper adaptations of both the No. 1 and No. 4.  After the adoption of the L1A1 Self-Loading Rifle in 1954 in 7.62 NATO, the L42A1 sniper rifle was adopted; this was a No. 4 modified to take 7.62 ammunition.  The L42A1 was used as recently as the Falklands conflict and was finally replaced in 1990.


WWII production blank training .303


Two of the above blanks, showing the 1943 dates on the headstamps.

As a living historian, I am often asked which Lee-Enfield is correct for WWII. As seen in the above history, it depends on the theater and stage of the war.  I am also frequently asked which rifle is “better”, and there is no easy answer.  Both are typically well-made, although the No. 1 will often have better fit and finish.  I have used the No. 1 Mk III* and the No. 4 Mk I and Mk II extensively.  I have fired live ammunition at the range, and blanks at reenactments.  The No. 4’s lighter bolt can allow for a slightly faster rate of fire; on the other hand, short blanks can sometimes misfeed, and the No. 1’s heavier bolt reduces this problem, as does using full-length blanks.  As I’m getting older, the sights on the No. 1 are getting harder for me to use; but I have no problem whatsoever with the sights on the No. 4.  These are also reliable firearms; I bought my first Lee-Enfield over 20 years ago, and have only had to perform one minor repair.

I love my Lee-Enfields, and my only regret is not shooting them as frequently as I would like.


Petrillo, Alan M.
The Lee Enfield Number 4 Rifles
Excalibur Publications, 1992

Reynolds, E.G.B., et al
British Enfield Rifles
National Rifle Association of America, 1990

Weeks, John
World War II Small Arms
Chartwell Books, Inc.